TZ-REDD Newsletter


TZ-REDD Newsletter


About the newsletter 

The TZ-REDD quarterly newsletter is a part of the TFCG/MJUMITA project funded by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Norway. The newsletters aim to keep practitioners, donors, universities and CSOs up-to-date about REDD projects in Tanzania, upcoming events, and REDD developments around the world.  

Click here  to download the PDF version of the newsletter.

TZ-REDD Newsletter

Issue No. 5, September 2011


I. National REDDyness

II. Updates from the Field

III. Highlights from abroad

1. REDD Safeguards and the UN FCCC

– Where are we? Where are we going? 

What happened in Cancun?

What happened in Bonn?

What might happen in Durban?

IV. Resources

I. National REDDyness

1. Progress on the Road to National REDD Readiness

The UN-REDD Programme in Tanzania – an overview

Submitted by Ralf Ernst (UNREDD Coordinator – Tanzania)

The UN-REDD Programme is a joint initiative of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). The Programme currently has 35 partner countries spanning Africa, Asia-Pacific and Latin America, of which 13 are receiving support to National Programme activities.

Tanzania was one of the first countries that developed a National UN-REDD Programme and received funding for its implementation; the national programme document was signed by the Government of Tanzania and the UN agencies at the end of 2009, and funding has been available since January 2010. 

The UN-REDD Programme in Tanzania supports government in several areas including the following:


  • developing capacity at national, regional and local levels for the management of REDD+,
  • developing and strengthening national systems and processes for REDD+, including safeguard systems,
  • developing a system for monitoring, assessment,  reporting and verification (MARV),
  • creating awareness on REDD+ and getting broad-based support from stakeholders for REDD+.

Capacity development

With regards to capacity development for REDD+, a capacity needs assessment across government agencies and at all levels of government is being prepared. The Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism (MNRT), as the National Coordinating Authority for the UN-REDD Programme in Tanzania, has requested UNDP to recruit consultants for this purpose.

REDD+ is a relatively new concept and therefore the UN-REDD Programme has already conducted training courses. More than 100 staff members of MNRT and other government agencies participated in a basic training on REDD+ earlier this year. Further measures are planned for the next months, in particular for forestry staff based in regional and district government offices.

The UN-REDD Programme, in close cooperation with the World Bank / FCPF, also organised a training course on “opportunity costs of REDD+ in Tanzania” and is about to recruit consultants to continue this work stream. This project will attempt to estimate not only opportunity costs, but also implementation, transaction and institutional costs of REDD+ in Tanzania.    

National systems and processes

The UN-REDD Programme also offers assistance to government for the development of a National REDD+ Strategy, which is part of the mandate of the National REDD Task Force. Funds can be made available, for example, for work on legal aspects of REDD+, for incorporating REDD+ into the national legal framework on forests, for stakeholder management and consultation processes and for the development of social and environmental safeguards for REDD+.

With regards to the last point, the Global UN-REDD Programme is working closely with the World Bank / FCPF and civil society organisations on the development of social and environmental standards for REDD+ which will be implemented by all Country Programmes.


A strong system for monitoring, assessment, reporting and verification (MARV) of forest carbon will be the backbone of a future REDD+ scheme. Tanzania is lucky in the sense that a comprehensive forest assessment has been going on in the country for some time through the National Forest Monitoring and Assessment (NAFORMA) project. By the end of 2012, the country will have excellent data on its forest cover and a system in place for the monitoring of forests as a result of NAFORMA.

The UN-REDD Programme is working closely with NAFORMA to build on this data and ensure the data will also suffice the needs of a forest carbon monitoring system. The UN-REDD Programme is also working with a range of stakeholders who are piloting approaches on MARV for REDD+ to ensure that a nationally coherent system will be developed.

Creating awareness

The UN-REDD programme is assisting MNRT with the development and distribution of information material on REDD+. Recently, materials were printed for distribution during the annual Sabasaba trade fair and celebrations for the 50th Anniversary of Independence. MNRT is currently recruiting consultants to help strengthen the Ministry’s Extension and Publicity Unit’s capacity for preparing information material on REDD+ and conducting awareness raising measures.

The UN-REDD programme also supported a Stakeholder Feedback Workshop earlier this year which provided a platform for discussion and information exchange among all REDD+ stakeholders in Tanzania. A second such event is planned in the near future.

The current phase of the UN-REDD Programme in Tanzania will end in June 2012. The Programme Coordination and Management Group has agreed to conduct a mid-term review before  the end of 2011 to take stock of achievements made so far and identify further steps needed to get Tanzania ‘ready for REDD+’. The review could also set the basis for developing a second phase for assistance of the UN-REDD Programme to Tanzania.

For further information on the UN-REDD Programme, please visit

2. Progress on MARV Systems Development in Tanzania

Adapted from a submission by Erneus Kaijage (Clinton Climate Initiative)

As part of REDD+ readiness, Tanzania is developing a robust, credible and transparent carbon monitoring, assessment, reporting and verification (MARV) system. Tanzania is considered a regional leader on MARV.

Primary national MARV system components

There are several parallel initiatives contributing to the development of Tanzania’s MARV system. These activities are being conducted both at the national level and project level, and are targeted at the following three main areas:

1.    Methodology development and data collection

There are several national systems being developed to collect data and support national and project level carbon accounting, including:


  • National Forest Resource Monitoring and Assessment (NAFORMA), a forest resource assessment supported by the Embassy of Finland and FAO.
  • Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), a remote sensing technology supported by the Royal Norwegian Embassy and implemented jointly by universities in Tanzania and Norway, as well as the Group on Earth Observation’s Forest Carbon Tracking initiative. Tanzania is a national demonstration country for LiDAR.  
  • National Carbon Accounting System (NCAS), supported by the Clinton Climate Initiative.

These data collection systems are being coordinated to create a comprehensive and robust national MARV system.

Several of the national REDD+ pilot projects are also conducting MARV related activities, including collecting biophysical information and providing training to communities on participatory carbon assessment and monitoring.

2.    Institutional arrangements and coordination

A National Carbon Monitoring Centre (NCMC) is being established to serve as a national carbon registry. It is intended to coordinate national carbon activities, including establishing procedures and standards for accounting and verification of carbon at the national and project levels. The Centre’s establishment is at an advanced stage, with the Division of Environment in the Vice President’s Office taking an overall leadership role in its establishment.

3.    Capacity building

As described above, the UN-REDD program is supporting capacity building for MARV. UN-REDD is, for example, working with the Forestry and Beekeeping Division/ Tanzania Forest Service to build the capacity of technical staff on various MARV related issues, including GIS (global information system), remote sensing, mapping, and modeling. Additionally, the Climate Change Impacts, Adaptation, and Mitigation (CCIAM) program, which is being implemented jointly by Tanzanian and Norwegian universities, has a large component focused on capacity building for MARV. The programme is training researchers and practitioners on modeling, remote sensing, mapping, etc.

Tanzania’s Participation in Regional MARV Workshops

As part of MARV systems development, Tanzania is collaborating and sharing lessons with other countries through regional workshop and fora. For instance, Tanzania, through Sokoine University of Agriculture, hosted a regional MARV workshop in Morogoro in July 2011. The workshop provided opportunities for countries in the region to share early lessons on MARV systems development, as well as identifying areas of potential collaboration.

From 2-4 August 2011, in Kampala, Uganda, the Clinton Climate Initiative (CCI), in partnership with the Australian Government Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency (DCCEE), held a National Carbon Accounting System workshop for the five East Africa Community (EAC) countries. The workshop was the first EAC gathering to discuss the development of sovereign, national level Carbon Accounting Systems for the land sector. Participants included 30 high-level government officials from the EAC countries. The event was opened by the Ugandan State Minister of Environment and closed by the Permanent Secretary of the same ministry. Key outcomes of this workshop are three fold. Firstly, the EAC country governments made commitments to continue working on the development of their own national systems, according to their needs and unique circumstances. Secondly, all countries agreed to explore the possibilities of developing a regional-level approach towards MARV systems. Thirdly, the Australian government committed to continue working with CCI on follow up activities in the five countries in the lead up to Durban’s CoP 17 and beyond.


Despite the substantial progress made both at the national and project levels, there are still challenges in establishing MARV systems. The main challenges deal with the establishment of reference emission levels and national baselines for carbon. While efforts to establish these baselines are underway, the lack of consistent and reliable historical data presents obstacles. Other challenges include ensuring that the above mentioned MARV initiatives are well coordinated and complementary.

New publication

 “At the heart of REDD+: a role for local people in monitoring forests?”

Abstract: …REDD+ … Implementation challenges include linking remote sensing and national forest inventories of carbon stocks to local implementation, and measuring carbon loss from forest degradation. Community-based forest monitoring can help overcome some of these challenges. We show that local people can collect forest condition data of comparable quality to trained scientists, at half the cost. We draw on our experience to propose how and where local REDD+ monitoring can be established. Empowering communities to own and monitor carbon stocks could provide a rapid and cost-effective way of absorbing carbon dioxide emissions, while potentially contributing to local livelihoods and forest biodiversity conservation.

Source: Danielsen, Finn, Margaret Skutsch, Neil D. Burgess, Per Moestrup Jensen, Herizo Andrianandrasana, Bhaskar Karky, Richard Lewis, Jon C. Lovett, John Massao, Yonika Ngaga, Pushkin Phartiyal, Michael Køie Poulsen, S. P. Singh, Silvia Solis, Marten Sørensen, Ashish Tewari, Richard Young, & Eliakimu Zahabu. “At the heart of REDD+: a role for local people in monitoring forests?” Conservation Letters 00 (2011) 1–10.

Full text can be freely downloaded at:

3.  Discussions on REDD+ Safeguards and Standards in Tanzania

It is increasingly recognized that REDD+ has the potential to have many benefits for local people and the environment, but also potentially adverse social and environmental impacts. To avoid or mitigate these negative impacts, and to enhance potential benefits, several international institutions are developing and promoting social and environmental safeguards and standards for REDD+, as discussed in more detail below.

Discussion and action on such safeguards in Tanzania is in early stages. However, some important progress is being made. As noted above, the UN-REDD programme is providing support to Tanzania in “developing and strengthening national systems and processes for REDD+, including safeguard systems”. In addition, recent meetings and publications reflect growing awareness of safeguards issues in Tanzania.

Initial Training on REDD+ Social and Environmental Safeguards

The National REDD Task Force and the National REDD Secretariat (Institute for Resources Assessment (IRA) of the University of Dar es Salaam), in partnership with the Clinton Climate Initiative (CCI), held a training workshop on REDD+ safeguards from 12 to 14 September 2011. The main workshop objective was to allow participants to share experience and knowledge on REDD+ safeguards. The meeting was opened by the Director of Environment, Dr. Ningu of the Vice President’s Office Division of Environment, and Chaired by Mr. Evarist Nashanda and Gerald Kamwenda of the National REDD+ Task Force.

Presentation and discussion topics included:


  • Overview of what REDD+ safeguards are, and why they are important
  • Review of the safeguards that are developing under the UN FCCC, and included in the Cancun Agreements
  • Review of some existing national law, policy, and regulatory provisions that help establish some safeguards for REDD+, including Environmental Impact Assessment
  • Safeguards and related tools that are being developed and promoted by the UN-REDD Programme, as part of its broader work in support of REDD+ development and implementation
  • REDD+ Social and Environmental Standards (REDD+ SES), which are voluntary, international standards developed by multi-sector stakeholders and facilitated by the Climate, Community and Biodiversity Alliance (CCBA) and CARE
  • The World Bank’s Strategic Environmental and Social Assessment (SESA) process, promoted as part of the Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF) REDD+ readiness support
  • Development of the ‘one programme’ approach between UN-REDD, FCPF/ World Bank, and other organizations supporting national REDD+ development

Key issues raised during discussions included:


  • Safeguards are about avoiding harm… and enhancing benefits!
  • Safeguards for REDD+ in Tanzania are important for many reasons, including international obligations but also national realities
  • International safeguards are useful. But they also have to be adapted and ‘translated’ into the national context in Tanzania
  • Safeguards development and implementation is an ongoing process, not a one-off event
  • Existing national law and policy provides an important starting place for REDD+ safeguards in Tanzania, including in the form of Environmental Impact Assessments
  • However, the existing mechanisms are unlikely to be sufficient in themselves, and EIA currently faces substantial implementation challenges 
  • A well planned and governed process will need to be developed to make sure there is full and effective participation in the development of safeguards in Tanzania.

It was agreed that next steps will include more in-depth review and comparison of the various international and national safeguards, and further work on the development of a national process for safeguards development in Tanzania.


New Publications: Technical Report and Information Briefing on

REDD+ Safeguards and Standards in Tanzania (TFCG/ MJUMITA)


The Tanzania Forest Conservation Group (TFCG) and MJUMITA recently launched a technical report and related information briefing on REDD safeguards and standards in the context of Tanzania. The report and information brief compare four major international standards (UN FCCC , UN-REDD, FCPF/ World Bank, and REDD+SES). They then analyze how these four instruments compare to the draft National REDD+ Strategy and other existing laws, policies and regulations in Tanzania. The information brief and report highlight that, while both the draft National REDD Strategy and other existing national laws, policies, and strategies reflect components of international REDD safeguards in many respects, there are also gaps that need to be addressed. The report and briefing can be downloaded here:

II. Updates from the Field

The Tanzania REDD+ pilot projects continue to make progress and learn lessons of national and international importance. What follows is a review of some key project information, and some project updates.


Continued Efforts on Gender and REDD in Tanzania

As noted in the May issue of this newsletter, there is growing interest in ensuring that gender equity and women’s empowerment are addressed in the context of the national REDD+ Strategy and the REDD+ pilot projects. In an effort to further partnership, learning and action on gender issues in REDD+, TNRF hosted a booth at the September Gender Festival, which was organized by the Tanzania Gender Networking Programme (TGNP). TNRF and TFCG also released an information briefing ( and technical report ( on Gender and REDD+. There are also a number of gender related activities being undertaken by the pilot projects (see, for example, the update from CARE below).



Project: Hifadhi ya Misitu ya Asili (Conservation of Natural Forests - HIMA), Zanzibar

Facilitating organization: CARE International


Submitted by Raja Jarrah (CARE, HIMA Technical Adviser)


HIMA is a partnership of CARE, the Department of Forestry, and 3 local NGOS in Zanzibar. The goals of the project are to:



  • reduce greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in Zanzibar; and
  • ensure that the resultant benefits contribute to reducing poverty and enhancing gender equality.



In Zanzibar, the process of negotiating community forest agreements with local communities has been gathering pace to put in place the legal basis for communities to participate in REDD. In the coming year, communities will receive full information and training on what REDD entails, so they are able to give, or withhold, their informed consent for participating in the scheme. Meanwhile, both biomass and social data are being collected and analysed to enable the carbon project document to be developed by HIMA’s collaborating agency, Terra Global Capital.


HIMA has launched a small grants scheme to encourage complementary activities by local CBOs and NGOs in the islands of Unguja and Pemba that will support and scale up the implementation of REDD. Approximately ten organisations will receive short-term grants for projects in community education, income generation and gender mainstreaming.


A number of important consultancy studies will help Zanzibar address some critical issues relating to REDD in the coming months. Firstly, an institutional analysis of the governance and policy context in Zanzibar will make recommendations on how Zanzibar can develop its own regulatory framework for REDD and engage more effectively with national Tanzania processes. Secondly, a report on the possible design of an aggregation entity to represent the collective interest of managers of community forests will help define the way finance from REDD carbon will be shared by communities. And thirdly, an internal report on gender mainstreaming, following the recommendations of the Gender & REDD Workshop hosted in Zanzibar last April, will help HIMA maximise the positive impact of its activities on the livelihoods and rights of women.


2. Jane Goodall Institute


Project: Building REDD Readiness in the Masito Ugalla Ecosystem Pilot Area in Support of Tanzania's National REDD Strategy

Implementing organization: Jane Goodall Institute (JGI) 

(Submitted by Nssoko Edwin)


Forest community members to kickoff benefit sharing mechanisms


 Recently, forest dependent communities in 7 villages in Western Tanzania that are participating in the JGI-REDD initiative, have agreed to a joint mechanism for sharing revenues and other benefits anticipated from REDD (and other payments for ecosystem services) in the Masito forest. This mechanism, in addition to helping ensure shared benefits throughout the participating communities, can provide an incentive for further action and build support and legitimacy for REDD.


The JGI-REDD pilot project conducted a survey in participating villages on the best approach to benefit sharing.  The survey sample included a total of 958 (out of 60,595) people across 7 villages. Survey interviews were followed up with a workshop that brought together representatives from various groups including community based organizations (CBOs), District Officials, religious leaders and NGOs in Kigoma District.


The stakeholders reached consensus that all money accrued from the sale of carbon credits and other ecosystem services will be channelled through the CBO JUWAMMA (Jumuiya ya Watunza Msitu wa Masito). JUWAMMA is comprised of five members from each of the 7 villages participating in the REDD project. The chairpersons from the seven villages (Kirando, Karago, Ilagala, Sigunga, Sunuka, Songambele and Lyabsende), the hamlet chair person, and the village executive officers are also invited to attend the JUWAMMA general meeting as observers. It is in this general meeting of JUWAMMA where decisions will be made regarding distribution of the benefits.


It is anticipated that in early 2012 revenues from carbon credits will begin being disbursed to the seven participating villages. Each village will come up with a development project plan, coordinated with the participatory forest management plan, which will be implemented using the carbon credit money. Some of the projects villages are proposing include constructing classrooms, dispensaries, houses for teachers, etc. It is likely that the REDD initiative will help address the extreme poverty in the project areas, which has been an obstacle to addressing environmental challenges.


Preliminary estimates showed that the project will accrue around US$ 400,000 in direct and indirect benefits from improved forest management. However, a recent inventory suggests that actual returns may vary slightly from this estimate.


Despite this progress, there are challenges facing implementation of the benefits sharing mechanism. From a global perspective, a key challenge is the fact that there is not yet a clear, binding decision on REDD under the UN FCCC. Nationally, there is not yet a finalized REDD Strategy, or related policies regarding engagement in voluntary or other carbon markets. This has created obstacles in the process to develop a Project Design Document (PDD). It is hoped that the COP17 in Durban, South Africa will come out with viable solutions on carbon markets.




Project: Combining REDD, PFM and FSC certification in South-Eastern Tanzania

Implementing organization: Mpingo Conservation and Development Initiative (MCDI) 

(Adapted from presentation by Steve Ball, REDD Learning Event 4th August 2011)


Combining Timber and Carbon


MCDI’s existing Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification scheme delivers community benefits from sustainable logging salesWith REDD, the Additionality Principle means communities cannot earn money from timber and from carbon. MCDI estimates indicate that the revenue from timber is likely to be higher than revenue from carbon sequestration. Communities are thus better off earning revenue from timber. However, there is a funding challenge in getting new communities and forests into the MCDI FSC group certificate.  And this is where REDD can help! Revenue from REDD can help overcome substantial start-up costs for participating in PFM and establishing FSC certification.


One specific way REDD can help communities engage in profitable PFM in the long term (including in the case of joining the FSC group certificate) is by providing income while forests are left to recover. This is particularly important in areas that have had recent heavy logging pressure, and thus depleted forest stocks. Communities’ returns on harvesting in such areas would be low if such forests were not left to regenerate. REDD can help ensure an income during an intervening period of regeneration. This REDD – PFM relationship is illustrated below.


Illustration: Expanding MCDI’s sustainable forestry scheme using REDD


Expanding MCDI’s sustainable forestry scheme using REDD


Project area and scope

The MCDI REDD pilot project is being carried out in Kilwa District, with plans to expand elsewhere in Lindi Region.  These are generally very poor, rural areas, with a median household income of less than $1 per day. The Kilwa Lowland Forest Mosaic in which the FSC and REDD project components are being carried is a complex, dynamic habitat, incorporating eastern arc coastal forest and miombo woodland.


The FSC Certification could double village income! This approach is particularly appropriate in Kilwa, as it is one of the most forested districts in Tanzania, with over 70% forest cover. MDCI has so far facilitated FSC Certification in 4 Village Land Forest Reserves in Kilwa District, collectively covering 17,151 ha. Under the REDD pilot project, 6 villages in central and southern Kilwa have signed carbon contracts with MCDI. Carbon contracts were refused by 3 villages.


Achievements to date


Major achievements of the project to date include the following: 


  • Raised awareness on REDD in the project area through village meetings, using simple explanatory leaflets
  • Prepared and signed carbon contracts with 6 villages. Practical strategies used in developing and finalizing these contracts included:
    • Hiring a lawyer to represent communities in negotiations
    • Engaging with the District Council lawyer
    • Ensuring that contracts give a lot of freedom to communities (though this may present challenges in the future if the terms of the contract are not recognized as sufficient by potential certification schemes, e.g., VCS)
    • Avoiding legalistic language, to ensure the terms are clear and agreeable to all parties
  • Analyzed 2000-2010 LandSat imagery to inform the eventual ‘business as usual scenario’.
  • Began assessment of carbon stocks in the project areas, including through the establishment of 18 permanent sample plots, and analyzed preliminary results regarding biomass carbon. Special measures were taken to encompass variation in miombo woodland. Soil carbon losses and recovery were assessed using chronosequence (rate of carbon return after abandoning farm).
  • Key drivers of deforestation in Kilwa were identified and analyzed with regard to their relative impacts, based on a probable range (see table below). 


Total Carbon Losses Estimate



Best Guess
























  • Socio-economic monitoring instruments have been designed and piloted in 2 villages, including participatory poverty mapping, a household questionnaire, and a participatory village governance assessment. The primary baseline data collection will start shortly. In addition to being important for the REDD project, these tools may have further reaching benefits. For example, the participatory village governance assessment tool may be an incentive for improving governance more broadly.
  • A policy analysis, led by Carbon Tanzania, has been conducted and will be updated annually.





Some of the challenges the MCDI pilot project is facing include the following:


  • There is a question of whether carbon related payments will add up to enough revenue to offset what communities could have gotten from agricultural activities.
  • Ensuring that leakage is effectively tackled is highly challenging.
  • The project needs to determine a VCS methodological approach before full data can be collected.





Project: Making REDD Work for Communities and Forest Conservation in Tanzania

Implementing organizations: Tanzania Forest Conservation Group (TFCG) and MJUMITA


(Submitted by Bettie Luwuge and Nike Doggart)


What the project aims to achieve

The project “Making REDD Work for Communities and Forest Conservation in Tanzania” aims to demonstrate at local, national and international levels, a pro-poor approach to reducing deforestation and forest degradation by generating equitable financial incentives from carbon finance sources for communities that are sustainably managing or conserving Tanzanian forests at community level.


The project is being implemented in two biodiversity hotspots.  One site covers 17 villages in Lindi Region in the Coastal Forest ecoregion. The other site covers 19 villages in the Eastern Arc Mountains of Kilosa and Mpwapwa Districts.  The project was launched in September 2009. The project aims to demonstrate a performance-based model for REDD, with communities directly accessing REDD finance. The project is aiming to generate credits that are validated by VCS and CCB. 


Recent achievements


Over the last few months the project has continued with the development of the project design documents for both sites.   This has included completing the historical forest change analysis for Lindi consistent with the VCS methods proposed by the BioCarbon Fund.  The analysis for Kilosa and Mpwapwa is also under way.  A payment model has been developed and 22 villages have completed or are in the process of completing REDD by-laws, village land use plans and establishing village forest reserves.  Using modified NAFORMA methods, the project has collected carbon data from 67 plots across the two project sites.  Data has been collected with the participation of community members of whom 382 have been trained in the carbon measurement methods.  The project has also completed the social impact assessments for both sites.


Through a participatory planning process, communities have identified various strategies to reduce deforestation and forest degradation in the area. These include improving agriculture, fire prevention campaigns, environmental education, improved stoves and support for various income generating activities. To support these strategies, the project has developed agricultural strategies for both sites working with the local Agricultural Research Institutes; has conducted fire awareness campaigns involving over 10,000 people; has trained 62 teachers in environmental education; and has launched a programme to support income generating activities in the project villages. 


Policy issues are critical to the success of the project.  For example, the success of a community-oriented, performance-based REDD model will depend on the government recognizing communities’ rights to directly access REDD revenues generated from reduced deforestation on village land. In order to generate more awareness and debate on these issues, the project has developed policy briefs; broadcast radio and television ‘spots’;  made presentations; and worked with journalists to publish newspaper articles and radio programmes about REDD. The project also considers the adoption of REDD standards to be critical for the successful implementation of REDD. As such, the project commissioned a detailed report to look at how standards and safeguards can be integrated into national policies and legislation.  The report and policy briefs are available on the project web page.


In order to further community engagement in the debates around REDD at local and national level, the project has supported the establishment of 8 MJUMITA community networks in the two project sites, and over the last six months 241 community members have been trained on governance and advocacy issues. The networks are starting to address illegal logging in the project areas and are motivating other villages to take action to reduce deforestation.




One of the challenges that the project has been working on over the last six months is to improve the way that land use planning and community based forest management planning are integrated at community level. In particular, the project has been looking into how to better integrate sustainable use into village forest reserve management plans. Working with District staff and FBD, the project has developed a modified approach to these processes, which has been implemented successfully in two villages. Other challenges include the continued uncertainty around national and international REDD policy.


Over the next six months the project will be focusing on finalising the VCS and CCB project design documents; piloting the payment mechanism; and progressing with the land use planning, participatory forest management and improved agriculture.


For more information about the project please visit our web page



5. WCS


Project: REDD Readiness in Southwest Tanzania…

Facilitating organization: WCS (International)


(Adapted from report on “The first 6 months of WCS/SHCP REDD Project July 2010 – December 2011”)


WCS is implementing a project on the development of standardised approaches for establishing baseline information, monitoring forest degradation, and supporting community incentives, education and resource supply in support of REDD in Tanzania. Its focus is on the montane forests of the Southern Highlands. 


This REDD project is part of WCS’s larger Southern Highlands Conservation Program (SHCP), the objective of which is to conserve and manage key upland species and habitats across the Southern Highlands of Tanzania.


Goals and Outputs


The goal of the SHCP REDD project component is to develop the capacity and knowledge for Tanzania to participate in REDD activities in the Southern Highlands, while establishing sustainable alternatives to forest resource use. The project aims to design and conduct a robust baseline study to provide methods for estimating degradation, deforestation, carbon sequestration, emissions and leakage in southwest Tanzania’s four most important forests, covering 52,680 hectares. These forests are: Mt Rungwe Nature Reserve, Mporoto Ridge Forest Reserve, Livingstone Forest (within Kitulo National Park) and Mbizi Forest (within Lyambo Hills Forest Reserve).


Using a range of remotely-sensed and ground-truthed techniques, as well as participatory monitoring methods, the pilot seeks to provide substantial carbon data, and to demonstrate appropriate tools for implementing REDD strategies and monitoring forest degradation. The project also provides economic incentives, reaching at least 50,000 people. This includes benefit sharing, environmental education, and alternative forest resource provision. The incentives help to address the main drivers of local forest degradation. The project also provides an estimate of the levels of emission reductions that could be expected, should the target forests be included in a national level REDD initiative.


Achievements to date


Achievements to date towards project outcomes include the following:


  • Selecting tier and approach-level, as well as the land cover classification system for the project
  • Developing a web-based knowledge management system (
  • Establishing linkages, e.g., with institutional partners, village and ward level offices, etc.
  • Relevant botanical, anthropocentric and remote sensing data are being collected
  • Establishing partnerships and initiating work towards indigenous reforestation, including identifying locations for reforestation activities and setting up indigenous tree nurseries 
  • Developing a 3 year environmental education plan for all participating villages, and providing education to target groups in 3 villages
  • Development of an alternative livelihoods honey scheme for Mt Rungwe, including by developing linkages with small scale honey production advisory groups, and providing training and sales support for honey producers
  • Produced preliminary carbon estimates for Southern Highlands of Tanzania
  • Supported the REDD+ pilot initiatives in Tanzania with webGIS mapping of pilot project locations (



The pilot project in the Southern Highlands has been well received by the community. Five components of the project - (a) environmental education (b) indigenous reforestation (c) Rungwe Honey Scheme (d) establishment of woodlots (e) participatory forest monitoring - have motivated community members to be more involved in conservation of the forest. Gender balancing in all the activities has helped ensure that women are participating in conservation activities. One impact of women’s involvement has been greater awareness of the issue of (un)sustainable fuel consumption, as women in the region are responsible for collection of firewood. Women have participated in seeking approaches to sustainable fuel supply without damaging the forest adjacent to their villages.



6. WWF


Project: Enhancing Tanzanian Capacity to Deliver Short and Long Term Data on Forest Carbon Stocks across the Country

Implementing organization: WWF Tanzania


Submitted by Prof. Shadrack Mwakalila (REDD project Coordinator)




A key aspect of determining the carbon benefit of any forest carbon project is accurately quantifying the levels of carbon changes to known levels of precision. Determination of carbon changes requires baselines, i.e. historical trends against which to measure additional carbon benefits arising from the project. Under REDD, the reference scenario will be the baseline against which achievements made by a country can be measured and credited. Possible options for crediting forest carbon management include reduction in emissions from deforestation; reduction in emissions from degradation; enhancement; forest conservation; and conservation of the existing carbon stock. The last two options relate to forests with long protection status which would be credited based on the maintenance of carbon stock, which would be compensated through a “conservation” fund that would be included under REDD.


The purpose of WWF-REDD project is to contribute core data to the Tanzanian national carbon monitoring, reporting and verifying (MRV) system, and to build capacity for sustainability in the future.


Progress on Activities


Progress to date towards project objectives includes the following:



  • Possibilities of including forestry or natural resources staff from the relevant Districts have been explored.
  • The REDD project team, and representatives from village environmental committees adjacent to project sites who will participate in field assessments, have been recruited.
  • Awareness-raising campaigns on the REDD project have been conducted in Mbeya, Iringa and Rufiji districts.
  • An inception workshop has been conducted to clarify complementarities in methodologies, use of project results and implementation partnerships;
  • The project team has held considerable discussion with LiDar advocates nationally and globally. Key points of contact have included Dr Erik Naessert (Norway), who will run a LiDar project in Tanzania; Dr. Eliakim Zahabu, MRV coordinator for Tanzania; and Prof Rogers Malimbwi, NAFORMA technical advisor. The conclusion is that the project will enhance the coverage of LiDar in Tanzania by overflying some of the existing and proposed 1 ha plots and NAFORMA plots in Tanzania, probably in the Udzungwa Mountains area.
  • A planning meeting with all implementing partners has been conducted.
  • The inception meetings in Tanzania and side meetings with NAFORMA, UN REDD, FBD and others in Tanzania have highlighted that the scenario work proposed in this project is not planned by other REDD pilot projects. Due to this, the funding allocation and work effort has been increased for scenarios, as these will be a unique project contribution.
  • Training on methodology, prior to field work, has been provided to 30 district natural resource staff members in Mbeya, Iringa and Rufiji.





Though the project is still in its first year of implementation, there are challenges it is facing. Key among these is the challenge of resolving overlap and complementarity in:


  • Methodologies;
  • Use of project results and outputs; and
  • Implementation partnerships (e.g., in the event of WWF project partners being involved in other MRV-related initiatives).



Key issues related to methodologies


Inception meetings and many informal discussions have ensured that the project is embedded within the overall package of work on MRV in Tanzania. Through these discussions we have identified the following key issues related to methodologies, to ensure that the project provides useful additions to what is being done in other MRV initiatives:



  • Relative focus of measurements between Below Ground Biomass and Above Ground Biomass (including large tree biomass and undergrowth, dead and living);
  • Methods and resolution of forest degradation assessments;
  • Production of updated allometric equations for different species (and roots-stem-crown variations) and their potential use for calibration;
  • Assessment of soil carbon to supplement the work of NAFORMA, which will provide data on aboveground biomass only; 
  • Relative detail/resolution of data sets produced and their potential use for verification;
  • Analysis of variation within common land cover categories/forest types; 
  • Measurements of carbon sequestration in addition to existing carbon store; and
  • Futures scenario development, for future changes in carbon stock.





Development of future scenarios under the WWF-REDD project is seen as an important element that has not been sufficiently covered by the package of other REDD initiatives in Tanzania. NAFORMA and FAO/UN-REDD initiatives will be supplied with data from the project. Thus the data from our work can be an input to their work, and vice versa. For example, under NAFORMA, both remote sensing and ground truthing will be undertaken. Our work can supply the ground truthing data for the areas where we are going to work. The project will also build synergy with other partners, such as the FCT/LiDAR project in Norway, the National Carbon Monitoring Center (NCMC) to be established, the National Carbon Accounting System (NCAS), and National Carbon Readiness Programs.



III.           Highlights from abroad


1. REDD Safeguards and the UN FCCC

– Where are we? Where are we going?


This article briefly reviews recent progress towards, and promise of, safeguards development under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UN FCCC).


To help ensure that REDD+’s social and environmental risks are avoided or mitigated, and that its benefits are enhanced, several international institutions are developing social and environmental safeguards and standards. Key among REDD+ safeguards are those included in Annex I of the UN FCCC Cancun Agreements (Decision 1/CP.16).


Other major safeguards and standards relevant for national REDD+ programmes, including in Tanzania, include: Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF) standards, including World Bank Operational Policies and Strategic Environmental and Social Assessment (SESA); the UN REDD programme’s draft Social and Environmental Principles and Criteria; and REDD + Social and Environmental Standards (REDD+ SES).  There are also instruments targeted at the project level, like the Carbon, Climate, and Biodiversity (CCB) Standards.



What happened in Cancun?


The 16th Conference of Parties (CoP 16) to the UN FCCC, held in Cancun, Mexico last year did not result in a binding agreement on REDD+.  However, the Cancun Agreements (Decision 1/CP.16) encourage REDD+ activities, and elaborate safeguards that Parties should “promote and support”. More specifically, Paragraph 70 encourages “developing country Parties to contribute to mitigation actions in the forest sector by undertaking the following [REDD+] activities:


(a) Reducing emissions from deforestation;
(b) Reducing emissions from forest degradation;
(c) Conservation of forest carbon stocks;
(d) Sustainable management of forest;
(e) Enhancement of forest carbon stocks;”


Further, Annex I of Decision 1/CP.16 lays out safeguards for carrying out activities under Paragraph 70 (i.e., REDD+).



REDD+ Safeguards Under the Cancun Agreements

(1/CP.16, Annex I, Para2)


2.      When undertaking the activities referred to in paragraph 70 of this decision, the following safeguards should be promoted and supported:


a.      That actions complement or are consistent with the objectives of national forest programmes and relevant international conventions and agreements;

b.      Transparent and effective national forest governance structures, taking into account national legislation and sovereignty;

c.       Respect for the knowledge and rights of indigenous peoples and members of local communities, by taking into account relevant international obligations, national circumstances and laws, and noting that the United Nations General Assembly has adopted the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples;

d.      The full and effective participation of relevant stakeholders, in particular indigenous peoples and local communities, in the actions referred to in paragraphs 70  and 72 of this decision;

e.      That actions are consistent with the conservation of natural forests and biological diversity, ensuring that the actions referred to in paragraph 70  of this decision are not used for the conversion of natural forests, but are instead used to incentivize the protection and conservation of natural forests and their ecosystem services, and to enhance other social and environmental benefits;

f.        Actions to address the risks of reversals;

g.      Actions to reduce displacement of emissions.


The Cancun Agreements also encourage promoting and supporting the safeguards, reporting on progress, and ensuring full and effective stakeholder participation, as illustrated in the following paragraphs (emphasis added):


  • Paragraph 69 affirms that “…implementation of the activities referred to in paragraph 70 [REDD+] should be carried out in accordance with appendix I … and…safeguards referred to in paragraph 2 of appendix I …should be promoted and supported”.
  • Paragraph 71(d) requests that countries develop “a system for providing information on how the safeguards …are being addressed and respected”.
  • Paragraph 75 and Annex II request that the UN FCCC scientific advisory body (SBSTA) develop guidance on safeguards information systems referred to in paragraph 71(d) (as well as other modalities and guidance for REDD+ implementation).
  • Paragraph 72 requests countries “when developing and implementing their national strategies or action plans, to address, inter alia, the drivers of deforestation and forest degradation, land tenure issues, forest governance issues, gender considerations and the safeguards …ensuring the full and effective participation of relevant stakeholders, inter alia indigenous peoples and local communities”.


Some stakeholders have raised concerns about whether the Cancun Agreements go far enough in ensuring compliance with the safeguards, protecting people’s rights and supporting benefit enhancements (rather than just avoiding harm) from REDD+. At the same time, the safeguards address many key environmental and social concerns with REDD+, promote “full and effective” participation, and more generally provide an important starting point for the development of strong and effective safeguards. 


What happened in Bonn?


The UN FCCC Climate Change Conference in June 2011, in Bonn, Germany, included the 34th session of the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA) and the 14th session of the AWG-LCA. REDD+ was an agenda point during several parts of the meetings. Discussion and progress on safeguards was very limited, but some potentially important next steps were planned.


SBSTA progress on safeguards



What is SBSTASBSTA is a scientific body under the UN FCCC. It is mandated to “provide the COP with advice on scientific, technological and methodological matters [including]…. conducting technical work to improve the guidelines for preparing national communications and emission inventories.”


The Cancun Agreements request that SBSTA develop guidance to help countries provide information on how they are ‘addressing’ and ‘respecting’ the REDD+ safeguards.  In response, the SBSTA agenda in Bonn included discussion on such guidance. According to IISD:


“On the information system on safeguards, parties identified principles for the system, including transparency, accuracy, adaptability to national circumstances, regularity, predictability, consistency and comparability. …The Co-Chairs presented draft conclusions containing an annex with possible elements for modalities relating to safeguards, …Several parties supported eliminating the annex, stating that the annex does not reflect parties’ common views. …Parties eventually agreed to retain the annex but to change the content to include general guidance for submissions and future work, identifying key elements to be considered when addressing the issues described.”


The resulting “general guidance” in the SBSTA Bonn meeting conclusions is, indeed, very general.   However, SBSTA also agreed to continue to work on the methodological guidance, with the aim of completing it at its 35th session and reporting to CoP 17 (Durban) on progress made. SBSTA also invited Parties and accredited observers to submit views on safeguards information systems (and other methodological issues) by 19 September 2011, for them to consider during their 35th session.


AWG-LCA progress on safeguards



What is AWG-LCAAt CoP 13, under the Bali Action Plan (1/CP.13), the CoP launched AWG-LCA as part of a “comprehensive process to enable the full, effective and sustained implementation of the Convention through long-term cooperative action…” The Cancun Agreements are based on outputs of the AWG-LCA.


The AWG-LCA began its follow up work related to the Cancun Agreements (Decision 1/CP.16), including various issues related to mitigation. However, there was little discussion about safeguards. The Parties agreed to address safeguards as a priority issue in their next meeting, which will take place in early October.


What might happen in Panama City?


The 14th session of the AWG-LCA will take place in Panama City, Panama from 1 – 7 October 2011. There is a specific AWG-LCA agenda point (3.2.3) regarding “policy approaches and positive incentives” for REDD+. While REDD+ safeguards are not specifically mentioned in the agenda, they may be a priority topic of conversation, as agreed in Bonn (see above).


Additionally, on 8-9 October 2011, the SBSTA will hold an expert meeting in Panama City to further discuss and develop guidance to countries on systems for providing information on how safeguards are addressed and respected. This will help SBSTA in preparation for its 35th session, and the finalization of any draft decisions to be presented to CoP17 in Durban.


It remains to be seen what, if any, substantive progress on safeguards will come from the AWG-LCA and SBSTA meetings in Panama…



What might happen in Durban?


UN FCCC CoP17, the 35th Session of SBSTA, and several other climate change meetings will be held in Durban, South Africa from 28 November to 9 December 2011. While the aim is to develop a binding agreement on climate change, potentially including REDD+, expectations of such an agreement being fully finalized and approved in Durban are generally low among many stakeholders. However, regarding REDD+ safeguards, there is likely to be some progress on a system for countries to provide information on how they are “addressing” and “respecting” REDD+ safeguards. In particular, as discussed above, SBSTA is scheduled to present its progress on guidance for such an information system, possibly including a draft decision for the Parties to consider.



New Publication

Developing Social and Environmental Safeguards for REDD+:

A guide for bottom-up approach

(Adapted from Executive Summary)


This guide describes a process for developing REDD+ socio and environmental safeguards in Brazil that was based on a broad participation of all parties involved. The discussion process included the private sector, environmental organizations, representatives of indigenous peoples and local communities, smallholders, and research institutions.


The social and environmental risks of REDD+ activities were discussed by these groups and, based on such discussions, safeguards to minimize those risks were prepared. The representatives of indigenous peoples, local communities and smallholders played an important role in this process by bringing the discussion to the local level and incorporating the main concerns of the people that live in and depend on the forest in the final document.


Now, the REDD+ socio and environmental safeguards prepared in Brazil are being presented by civil society to government authorities as a contribution to the establishment of public policies addressing REDD+, climate change and, within a broader scenario, alternative land uses in forest areas.


Full citation: Manceira Bontante, Talia, Maurício Voivodic, and Luís Meneses-Filho.  2010. Developing Social and Environmental Safeguards for REDD+: a guide for bottom-up approach. Imaflora. Publication supported by The UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra), the British Embassy in Brazil. 40pp.

Available for download at :



New SADC Regional Programme on REDD+ Launched

(Adapted from


During the SADC Ministerial Meeting that took place in Windhoek, Namibia on 26th May 2011, the SADC Support Programme on REDD+ was approved by the Ministers responsible for Environment and Natural Resources Management.


SADC is the first regional organization in Africa to agree on a comprehensive programme to support Member States in their efforts to combat climate change and achieve their development goals through reduced emissions in the forestry sector. With its 4-year programme, SADC is committed to support REDD+ preparations and to promote cooperation on shared forest ecosystems through the implementation of ecosystem approaches, as well as to address and regional issues arising from the implementation of REDD+ such as leakage and monitoring, reporting and verification.

The SADC Support Programme on REDD aims to provide a comprehensive framework for the region to actively participate in and benefit from the carbon market, and to contribute to the social and economic development in the Member States.

Point of contact for more information: Mr Nyambe H. Nyambe, Senior Programme Officer at the SADC FANR (Food, Agriculture and Natural Resources) Directorate (



New REDD+ Project

World Bank funds REDD project in the Congo Basin

(Adapted from World Bank online Project Database, Project ID P113167)


The development objective of the Enhancing Institutional Capacities on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) issues for Sustainable Forest Management in the Congo Basin Project is to strengthen the capacities of the Congo Basin countries on REDD issues and on forest carbon stock measurements, in particular. There are four components to the project.


(1)  Improving knowledge and coordination on REDD in the Congo Basin (US$4.7m): This component will support, improve and accelerate the regional knowledge and coordination on REDD by: (i) strengthening the regional dialogue on REDD across the Congo Basin countries with a specific focus on learning and knowledge exchange between the political and technical levels; (ii) promoting inclusive participation and representation of stakeholder groups in policy and strategy discussions at the regional level; and (iii) responding to incremental capacity building needs to maintain regional cohesion.

(2)  Building technical capacities for measurement and monitoring of carbon stocks in the Congo Basin forests (US$4.0m): This component will cover: (i) the set up of a scientific partnership for forest carbon measurement and monitoring; and (ii) the elaboration of specific algometric equations for the Congo Basin forests to enable countries to accurately report changes in forest carbon stock for a future results-based financial incentive system for REDD.

(3)  Mainstreaming REDD concept in Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) Projects (US$3.0m): This component will target REDD project developers to enhance their capacity, through exchanges of information as well as preparation of methodologies and technical guidelines for REDD project preparation and implementation.

(4)  Project management (US$1.3m): This component will support project implementation, regular monitoring and evaluation, and ensure overall accountability to the Bank on reporting, fiduciary aspects and auditing.


The project has prepared a report on “Integrated Safeguards Data – Appraisal Stage”, dated 02/28/2011. It is available at ( IB/2011/02/28/000003596_20110301094030/Rendered/PDF/Integrated0Saf1ppraisal0Stage01GEF1.pdf) 



IV.          Resources


UN FCCC REDD Related Meeting Calendar:  It can be a challenge to keep track of the global meetings related to REDD+ in 2011. Keep up to date with this calendar, prepared by the UN FCCC Secretariat:


UN FCCC climate change meeting summaries from IISD: It can also be hard to keep track of what happened at all the different international climate change meetings. The IISD Earth Negotiation Bulletin (A Reporting Service for Environment and Development Negotiations) has detailed summaries of negotiations and meetings at the UN FCCC CoP and other climate change conferences. See, for example, the detailed IISD reports from UN FCCC CoP 16:



New International Initiative on “Women in REDD+” Launched at Cancun

(Adapted from AborVitae no. 43 (2011) “Gender and REDD+” p.4)


A new gender initiative – Women in REDD+ - was jointly launched by IUCN, the Women’s Environment and Development Organization (WEDO) and Women Organizing for Change in Agriculture and Natural Resource Management (WOCAN) during the UN climate summit in Cancun in December. The initiative aims to ensure that women are an integral part of negotiations on REDD, and that REDD agreements recognise gender differentiated needs within forest communities.


Current REDD+ initiatives state the need to engage indigenous peoples and local communities, but do not recognize the differentiated needs of women and men within communities, according to IUCN and its partners in the initiative. “Because women do not necessarily own forest lands, they are often excluded from discussions about how forest should be managed at community level. What worries us is that there is a risk that women would also be excluded from REDD payment schemes for the same reason“, says Consuelo Espinosa, IUCN’s Senior Forests and Climate Change Officer.


 “…[If] REDD+ is to impact positively on the forest-dependent poor, governments should make sure that women, whose livelihoods depend mostly on forest resources, get an equal share of benefits from REDD” explains Lorena Aguilar, IUCN’s Global Senior Gender Adviser.



SADC REDD+ Network – A resource for REDD+ information sharing in the region

(Adapted from

The SADC REDD+ Network was launched during the UNFCCC COP16 in Cancun, Mexico in December 2010. The Network can be accessed here:

In a workshop held in Arusha in March 2010, experts from the SADC region expressed the need for a more structured way in which to share information about ongoing developments on REDD, and to exchange knowledge among different stakeholders. As a result of this meeting, the SADC information-sharing network on REDD was created, providing a platform for discussion and exchange of information and bringing together key stakeholders to accompany the establishment and prepare for a fully functioning REDD mechanism that corresponds to the specific needs of the region.

The objective of the SADC information-sharing network on REDD is to provide experts from governments, research institutes, NGOs and CSOs and other stakeholders in the SADC region with a comprehensive overview of REDD activities in the SADC region by creating a pool of information on specific REDD-related questions relevant to the region and beyond.



New Issue of ArborVitae focused on REDD and Gender


Issue no. 43 (2011) of the IUCN Forest Conservation Programme Newsletter ArborVitae looks at the issue of gender equity and women’s empowerment in REDD. It includes articles on:


·         gender issues treatment in Cancun,

·         the international Women in REDD+ initiative,

·         women and forest ownership, including an article on women and cash crops in Tanzania,

·         women and community forestry, including an article on women’s participation in woodlot development in Tanzania,

·         linking adaptation and mitigation for women’s empowerment, and

·         an interview with Wangari Maathai.


The full issue can be downloaded here:


New Publication

REDD+ Benefit Sharing:

A Comparative Assessment of Three National Policy Approaches


Costenbader (2011) reviews three forest sector policy approaches to benefit-sharing, to identify potential lessons for REDD+: payments for ecosystem/environmental services (PES), participatory forest management (PFM), and forest concession revenue-sharing arrangements. PFM experience in Tanzania is included among several case studies from Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Costenbader notes that, while “…None of the three approaches… guarantees “better” or “more equitable” benefit sharing by design alone… PFM presents strong promise as a decentralized management strategy compatible with PES under which small landholder communities may be included in a future REDD+ delivery system…” (Costenbader 2011:2).


Source: Costenbader, John. June 2011. REDD+ Benefit Sharing: A Comparative Assessment of Three National Policy Approaches. UN-REDD and FCPF. 


Available for download at :




New Publication

USAID Briefing on Tenure and REDD+


According to a new briefing from US AID on the role of land tenure in REDD+, "[t]enure is the central feature of REDD+ readiness. Investment in REDD+ performance in situations where tenure is unclear is a waste of resources. Therefore, further investment in pilot projects or readiness should be contingent on the development and implementation of sound land policies and progress in achieving broader tenure security for affected populations. In most countries, it will not be practical to stall REDD+ investments until tenure concerns are fully addressed. However, efforts need to be made to define and sequence initial tenure priorities for REDD+ readiness countries, which should be used as benchmarks for subsequent investment in REDD+ readiness and REDD+ pilot work…” (Sommerville 2011:11).


Source: Sommerville, Matt. 2011. “Issue Brief: Land Tenure and REDD+: Risks to Property Rights and Opportunities for Economic Growth” Property Rights and Resource Governance Briefing Paper # 11.

 USAID Issue Brief. USAID.


The full text can be downloaded at: