About the newsletter
The TZ-REDD quarterly newsletter is a part of the TFCG/MJUMITA project funded by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Norway. The newsletters aim to keep practitioners, donors, universities and CSOs up-to-date about REDD projects in Tanzania, upcoming events, and REDD developments around the world.
Click here to download the PDF version of the newsletter.
Issue No. 7, March 2012
- New REDD Task Force and Technical Working Groups are underway
- Draft National Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan (NCCSAP)
- New Research and Continuing Capacity Building under CCIAM
- Upcoming Meeting on REDD+ SES in Tanzania
- Re-capping the Mixed Results for REDD+ at Durban
- Continuing Development of International Safeguards and Standards
- REDD+ Partnership: Open Meeting on Finance
- Newsletter on REDD+ Progress in Cameroon
- Joint Declaration of Intent on REDD+ in the Congo Basin
Based on an interview with Mr. Charles Meshack
A new National REDD Task Force was launched in February 2012, with key roles including coordinating REDD initiatives and supporting the integration and mainstreaming of REDD in relevant Ministries.
The 13-member Task Force is Chaired by the Director of Environment under the Vice President’s Office (VPO). It includes representatives from the VPO Division of Environment and the Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism (MNRT), as well as representatives from the Ministry of Finance (MoF); Ministry of Energy and Minerals (MEM); Ministry of Agriculture and Food Cooperatives (MAFC); Ministry of Water and Livestock Development (MWLD); Prime Minister’s Office – Regional and Local Government (PMO-RALG); Ministry of Lands, Housing and Human Settlements Development (MLHHSD); Ministry of Community Development, Women and Children (MCDWC); and DFNR Zanzibar, Director of Environment Zanzibar. Civil Society Organizations also have one representative on the Task Force, Mr. Charles Meshack, Executive Director of the Tanzania Forest Conservation Group (TFCG). Mr. Meshack was selected through a CSO nomination and voting process coordinated by the Tanzania Natural Resource Forum (TNRF), per the request of the VPO.
The Task Force faces several challenges, including:
• Supporting coordination and integration of National REDD pilot projects. There is important progress and learning in the context of these projects, but they have to be well coordinated, and their lessons need to be effectively identified, communicated, and linked to national processes in order for their full impact to be realized.
• Addressing drivers of deforestation. While the drivers of deforestation and forest degradation are increasingly understood, addressing them in effective and equitable ways remains a major challenge. How can effective and equitable REDD be achieved in appropriate balance with energy and agriculture needs? What can be done at the site and country levels?
• Developing and implementing safeguards. Strong social and environmental safeguards are important for effective and equitable REDD. Despite important progress, there are many open questions and remaining challenges for developing and implementing such safeguards in Tanzania.
Despite these challenges, the new Task Force has great potential. There is a clear growing interest in REDD at multiple levels in Tanzania. For example, Parliament has requested information on REDD from the Task Force to better inform high level debate and decision making. The Government of Zanzibar has also requested training on REDD, working with the Task Force, to enhance understanding of opportunities and challenges in the Zanzibar context.
The Task Force also has several important support resources. The Institute of Resource Assessment (IRA) of the University of Dar es Salaam continues to act as Secretariat. The Task Force is further supported by five REDD+ Technical Working Groups on:
1. MRV systems
2. Financial Mechanisms
3. Energy Drivers
4. Agriculture drivers
5. REDD+ Safeguards and governance
These Technical Working Groups are multi-stakeholder, including representation from government and CSOs, with Chairs selected by each group from among their members. The Working Groups have only recently begun, but they have great potential to support the Task Force and REDD stakeholders in Tanzania in seeing through implementation of the REDD Strategy and related efforts. The Working Groups met 26 – 28 March 2012, in Bagamoyo, with the aim of producing a Draft Action Plan for the National REDD+ Strategy.
In October, 2011, the Vice President’s Office, Division of Environment released the first draft of the National Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan (NCCSAP) (www.forumcc.org/nccsap_comments). The NCCSAP reviews Tanzania’s efforts to address climate change vulnerability and adaptation, as well as mitigation in the context of sustainable development. The strategy outlines national initiatives to build capacities, act on international opportunities and resources, and participate in international climate change discussions. It also reiterates Tanzania’s commitment to address climate change, while recognizing its vulnerability and unique national circumstances. The draft includes background information on global climate change interventions, opportunities, and challenges; a review of the country context, including the policy/ institutional landscape and implications of climate change for various sectors and; and a strategy, action plan, and proposed implementation arrangements for addressing climate change challenges and opportunities.
The Tanzania Civil Society Forum on Climate Change (ForumCC) facilitated collection of civil society feedback on the draft NCCSAP. Feedback was submitted electronically as well as through a series of workshops held in February:
• Zone 1 – Kagera, Mwanza, Shinyanga, Mara and Kigoma;
• Zone 2 – Arusha, Kilimanjaro and Manyara;
• Zone 3 – Tabora, Singida, Dodoma and Rukwa;
• Zone 4 – Iringa, Mbeya, Morogoro and Ruvuma; and
• Zone 5 – Coast, Lindi, Dar-es-salaam, Mtwara, Tanga and regions of Zanzibar.
• National - a national workshop involving regional representatives was held on 22 February 2012, Dar-Es-Salaam.
Comments include the following (paraphrased and adapted from the full report available here):
General Comments suggest that the first draft NCCSAP sets the right direction for addressing climate change challenges; it is in line with international efforts and is based on national laws and regulations. The efforts of the Government of Tanzania through the VPO-DoE and other stakeholders should be recognized.
Regarding the drafting process, CSOs recommend that deliberate efforts be made to open the process to more stakeholders’ input and to facilitate participation before the strategy is finalized. CSOs also provide detailed suggestions regarding the document structure and organization.
CSOs recommend specific language for the Rationale of the NCCSAP, including the following: “… NCCSAP [was] developed for the following reasons: (a) To have a broader and coordinated country level approach to adapting to climate change... (b) To raise awareness of the general public in understanding how best to adapt and mitigate the changing climate. Community members are key players in strategy implementation. (c) To present immediate, medium and long term strategic actions that are based and linked to national priorities and other strategies on national adaptation and mitigation needs for addressing climate changes and eradicate poverty. (d) To contribute to international responses towards climate change.(e) To establish a basis for developing policies and structures for environmental management and climate change issues. (f) To establish a coordinated Monitoring and Evaluation Framework for climate change. (g) To contribute in creating a platform for climate change agenda, including building capacity of CSOs and advocacy skills (h) To establish a platform for continued research and discussions on climate change, as well as link between various stakeholders in the climate change agenda.”
It is recommended that the NCCSAP include a clear vision, mission statement and principles, and they provide reflections on what these should cover. Further, they recommend that the goal and objectives of the NCCSAP be clarified and better aligned to the strategies outlined; CSO comments provide specific proposals for strengthening goals and objectives.
CSO recommendations on mitigation components of the NCCSAP include being clearer with regard to REDD overall, undertaking thorough assessment of deforestation drivers, and appreciating indigenous species in afforestation and reforestation. Recommendations were also made regarding energy, agriculture, research, and the legal and policy framework. CSOs also provide specific recommendations on CC adaptation, including emphasizing water availability, access, and quality, as well as food security.
CSOs provide specific recommendations to clarify the Action Plan, as well as developing indicators and an M&E plan; developing a clearer and more inclusive institutional arrangement for implementation; and specifying a budget and resource mobilization plan, including dedicated funds from Ministries.
These recommendations provide important feedback for the drafting committee as it continues its work. There are also several open questions about the NCCSAP that warrant further consideration. Among these is exactly how the NCCSAP relates to the National REDD Strategy. Are separate documents (CC Strategy and REDD Strategy) necessary, and if so, how will they be coordinated?
Main Activities November – March2012
Submitted by CCIAM
Climate Change Impacts, Adaptation and Mitigation (CCIAM) is a 5-year program (2009 – 2014) supported by the Royal Norwegian Embassy. Collaborating partners include:
· Tanzania: Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA), University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM), Ardhi University (ARU) and Tanzania Meteorological Agency (TMA); and
· Norway: Norwegian University of Life Sciences (UMB), University of Oslo (UIO-Oslo), Center for International Climate and Environmental Research – Oslo ( CICERO), and Norwegian Agricultural Economics Research Institute (NILF).
CCIAM’s objective is to develop and sustain adequate national capacity to effectively participate in climate change. Particular emphasis is given to REDD initiatives, including through implementation of research projects on REDD and PFM sites.
Second Call for Research Projects:
A second call for CCIAM research projects was advertised 21 – 26 October 2011 in the Daily News, Majira, and the Guardian, and posted on SUA website. Thirty-one Concept Notes were received and sent to international reviewers, from which 17 were selected for further development and consideration. The resulting full proposals, submitted by 28 February, have been reviewed and a decision on projects to be funded will be made soon.
• Human Resources: Training has been provided to 50 Masters and 16 PhD students in Tanzania. Twelve PhD students have received national scholarships and four PhD students have received international scholarships (registered at UMB).
• Short courses: Courses on GIS and Remote Sensing Application with Integrated LiDAR Data and Ground based Inventories for Forest Biomass Mapping were conducted 2 – 15 November 2012 at SUA. Participants included 15 CCIAM MSc. and PhD scholars and 11 from Government Ministries.
• Dissemination Workshop: A scientific conference for 59 participants from Tanzanian institutions was held 2 – 3 February 2012 at Blue Pearl Hotel. Participating institutions included TAFORI, NGOs operating in REDD pilot sites, and Ministries. Presentations were made from 14 research projects, 4 strategic intervention projects and 4 NGOs.
Submitted by CCI
CARE international, the Climate, Community and Biodiversity Alliance (CCBA), and the Clinton Climate Initiative (CCI, as local host) are co-organizing a global learning and exchange event on REDD+ Social and Environmental Safeguards (REDD+ SES) in Tanzania from 2 - 5 May. This event will bring together safeguards facilitators from 9 countries already implementing various safeguards mechanisms, including Democratic Republic of Congo, Brazil, Ecuador, Indonesia, and Nepal. The aim is to provide facilitators with an opportunity to share experience, progress, and lessons from implementation of the safeguards and other REDD programs in their respective countries. Such learning meetings are held twice each year, the last being held in October 2011, in Acre, Brazil. The forthcoming meeting in Tanzania is expected to involve participants from government, NGO-pilot projects and other key REDD stakeholders in Tanzania.
Project: Advancing REDD in the Kondoa Irangi Hills Forests (ARKFor)
Implementing organization: African Wildlife Foundation (AWF)
Improved knowledge and scientific understanding of target forests: Results of a quantitative survey of deforestation drivers and additional work on GIS and remote sensing have helped to refine preliminary data on carbon figures, as well as re-defining the project area. Present carbon stocks in the project area are 1,596,903 tCO2; of this, 59.24% are in target forests and the remainder are in the reference area and leakage belt. The project area has increased from approximately 56,000 ha to 71,632 ha. The mean annual deforestation rate is 0.46% and the forest degradation rate is 5.2%. Annual CO2 emissions saved from avoided deforestation and forest degradation are estimated at 12,500 tCO2. The Project Documents (PDs) under CCBS and VCS have been compiled and are awaiting inputs from partners.
Enhanced REDD understanding and capacity building among stakeholders in Kondoa: To date, 217 people (136 men and 81 women) have received training. Previously, the project reported training 62 women and 88 men in, among others, REDD+ concepts, JFM and land use planning. Additional training since then includes: training on land use and REDD (9 men and 9 women); Village Forest Scouts were given a three-month introductory formal training in natural resource management, forest law, and law enforcement (18 men and 3 women); and district level political and government leaders were given a thorough introduction to the ARKFor project and a training on REDD (21 men and 7 women).
Improved forest and land management to address fundamental drivers of deforestation: AWF is facilitating participatory land use management planning in all 21 project villages. AWF previously reported the completion of 10 land use plans. An additional four villages have since initiated land use planning processes, which are at different stages of development.
Joint Forest Management (JFM) planning and implementation: The draft JFM plan was refined based on inputs from the wider communities. One of the proposed JFM forests - Isabe - is owned by the District Government. During the JFM planning process the officials from the District Natural Resources Department agreed to a benefit sharing arrangement where 80% of all gross cash benefits go to communities. The District Officials and community representatives proposed that the same benefit sharing structure be applied to the other central government owned forest, Salanga. This proposal will need to be communicated to the Tanzania Forestry Service for consideration and further negotiations. Implementation of some JFM actions, such as patrols by Village Forest Scouts, have started and several cases of illegal activities in the forest have been filed in court.
Target communities benefiting from diversified and sustainable livelihood options: Previously, AWF reported training 60 lead farmers in five villages on conservation and improved agriculture. Since then, an additional 108 farmers from 9 other villages have received the same training. The originally trained 60 farmers had one-acre demonstration plots, on which productivity increased eight-fold from about 300-400kg of maize/acre to about 2,000-2,400kg/acre, hence earning each farmer an average additional income of $400/acre (about Tsh 640,000/acre). Recent field visits revealed that these farmers have continued conservation farming in the absence of project support, and that many others have also adopted the techniques. For instance, in Kolo Village, more than 80 other farmers have adopted conservation farming at their own cost. Unfortunately, drought has hit Kondoa this season, jeopardizing the expected harvest.
Visit by the Norwegian Parliament’s Standing Committee for Foreign Affairs and Defense: In late 2011, ARKFor was visited by five members of Norwegian Parliament’s Standing Committee for Foreign Affairs and Defense. The committee was led by its Chair, Ms Ine Eriksen Søreide, who was accompanied byH.E. Ingunn Klepsvik, Ambassador of the Royal Norwegian Embassy in Tanzania, and other officials. The objective of the visit was to gain insights into how Norwegian support contributes to making a difference in people’s lives and to the environment/biodiversity. The Standing Committee was pleased with the impacts that the Norwegian support is making in Tanzania.
Project: Hifadhi ya Misitu ya Asili (HIMA) - Piloting REDD in Zanzibar through Community Forest Management
Implementing organization: CARE Tanzania
Submitted by Raja Jarrah
Thirty-seven draft Community Forest Management Agreements have been negotiated with communities and are awaiting legalization, bringing the potential total project area to over 80,000 ha and covering 20,000 households. These new draft agreements now include land tenure for 30 years and an explicit statement entitling communities to ownership of the forest carbon.
Biomass and social baselines have still not been completed because of challenges in timely processing of data. A new methodology has been submitted to VCS by Terra Global to enable the estimation of deforestation rates from incomplete series of remote sensing images with high cloud cover. The Project Document should be ready in the coming months.
A community forest federation for Zanzibar, JUMIJAZA, has been established. As well as representing the interests of community forest groups, it will also serve as the carbon aggregation entity.
A first distribution of incentive payments to communities has been carried out. This was not based on carbon estimation, but on a set of proxy forest and social variables including percentage of area designated for high protection zone; subjective assessment of forest condition; areas of woodlots to provide alternatives to natural forest; women’s representation on conservation committees; and number of widow-headed households.
A detailed Gender Analysis of HIMA has been carried out involving focus groups and key informants in Unguja and Pemba. This highlighted the need to strengthen some aspects of the project design as well as to improve implementation of some ongoing activities.
CARE is supporting a multi-country action research exercise on REDD and Gender in collaboration with the Women’s Environment and Development Organisation (WEDO). Field research in Tanzania is expected to take place in May, and HIMA is inviting other REDD pilots that have made advances in their gender work to participate.
Project: Combining REDD, PFM and FSC certification in South-Eastern Tanzania
Implementing organization: Mpingo Conservation and Development Initiative (MCDI)
MCDI underwent a feasibility assessment of their new project design focused on fire management. A technical carbon specialist judged the project both technically and financially feasible, but with significant challenges and some risks. However, these risks are worth it when considering the wide potential applicability of a fire control project in dryland forests funded by the carbon markets: the miombo ecosystem alone spreads across some 2.8 million km2 of southern Africa. The next step will be to develop a brand new VCS methodology, which should be completed by end 2012.
Initial analysis of carbon stocks field surveys has been completed. Mean above-ground biomass carbon is estimated at 17.3tC/ha in Kilwa.
Following consultations with local stakeholders, the carbon agreements between MCDI and communities participating in the project will be amended to provide for a percentage based distribution of revenue. This compares to the previous model whereby communities receive 100% of profits after deducting MCDI's costs. This new format will be clearer and easier for everyone to understand.
Collection of baseline data on the village governance survey and household socio-economic questionnaires were completed. First results are anticipated soon.
Communities are already benefiting from timber sales conducted under MCDI's FSC certificate.
Women from Kikole village collecting water from their new bore-hole, partly financed from PFM revenue.
Project: Making REDD Work for Communities and Forest Conservation in Tanzania
Implementing organizations: Tanzania Forest Conservation Group (TFCG) and MJUMITA
Submitted by Bettie Luwuge
Launched in 2009, the project aims to demonstrate a pro-poor approach to REDD. The project is being implemented in 36 villages at two sites. One site includes 140,000 ha of forest and woodland in the Eastern Arc Mountains, including villages in Mpwapwa and Kilosa Districts. The other site covers 75,000 ha of coastal forests and woodland in Lindi District. Both sites are within biodiversity hotspots.
Over the last three months, the project has been moving forward on supporting communities to put in place measures that will help them to reduce deforestation whilst also improving their livelihoods. So far, eight communities in Lindi and six communities in Kilosa have completed their land use plans; established their village forest reserves; and developed REDD by-laws to govern the distribution of REDD revenues.
The project is piloting an individual payment mechanism whereby REDD revenues will be distributed between all community members. Trial REDD payments were made in five villages (2 in Kilosa and 3 in Lindi). Payments were made in order to test the governance structures around the distribution of REDD revenues at community level. Payments were made on an individual basis to all residents of the participating communities. They were calculated on the basis of the emission reductions that could reasonably be expected to result from the enhanced protection of forest at risk of deforestation that the communities have included in their newly established village forest reserves. A total of TZS 73,234,540 (approximately US$ 45,000) has been paid to 4,674 community members (1071 men, 1,636 women and 1,967 children and dependents). Community members were given the option of contributing to community development projects. Communities chose to contribute a total of TSH 15,378,031 to support community development activities in their village, including some forest management activities. This approach is based on revenue distribution mechanisms developed in the context of participatory wildlife management in southern Africa. These ‘pre-payments’ come from the project’s working capital and not from the voluntary carbon market.
Other strategies that the project is pursuing to reduce deforestation and improve livelihoods include training on fuel efficient stoves resulting in 647 households now using fuel efficient stoves; beekeeping; promotion of conservation agriculture; and prevention of crop losses to wildlife.
Some of the challenges that the project has been facing include delays at District level in the approval of village land use plans; and weak linkages between agricultural policy and REDD. Whilst farmers are requesting more effective and efficient agricultural extension services, this does not appear to be a priority under programmes such as Kilimo Kwanza. There remains a need for greater linkages between REDD and the agriculture sector.
A woman stresses a point about contributions to community development projects during a Village Assembly meeting in Dodoma Isanga village. Photo by Emmanuel Lyimo
Members of the REDD Revenue Sharing Committee recounting money for pre- payment from the project for testing of the REDD Revenue Sharing Mechanism in Ruhoma village . Photo by Baraka Samuel.
A mother receiving individual dividends for herself and her dependents in Ruhoma village. Photos by Baraka Samuel
For more information about the project please visit www.tfcg.org/makingREDDWork.html
Funding to the WWF implemented REDD project has been suspended by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Norway, pending investigation.
Forum CC hosted a meeting to review CoP17 outputs with civil society stakeholders in Tanzania (21 - 22 February, Blue Pearl Hotel, Dar es Salaam). More information is available here.
Still not sure what the Durban outcomes mean for REDD+? Below is a brief recap…
According to CIFOR’s lead climate scientist, “The U.N. climate change talks in Durban resulted in a mixed bag for REDD+: progress on how to set reference emissions levels, progress on defining how to measure emission reductions stemming from forestry initiatives, but a weak decision on social and environmental safeguards for the program, and no advances on sources of long-term funding”
Negotiations on REDD financing modalities under the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action (AWG-LGA)
No clear-cut decision was reached regarding REDD financing. This continued lack of clarity poses a major ongoing challenge for wide-scale REDD implementation, though many countries like Tanzania, continue to move forward in their preparations. There was some agreement that financing may come from a variety of sources, and that the CoP can, in the future, develop market-based approaches based on experience from current and future demonstration activities. There was also agreement that safeguards should be adhered to regardless of the funding source. In the end, however, the most challenging questions for financing modalities were left to CoP18, to be informed by submissions of views from the parties and observers (accepted through early March 2012), an expert workshop, and a technical report by the Secretariat of the UNFCCC.
Negotiations on modalities for forest reference emission levels and forest reference levels under the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA)
Some substantial progress was made with regard to forest reference emission levels and forest reference levels, including agreement that performance benchmarks should be expressed in terms of tons of carbon dioxide equivalent per year. The decision also includes relatively robust guidance on how emission levels should be periodically reported (see details below). According to CIFOR, this ‘major win’ at Durban may help REDD+ be considered in the Clean Development Mechanism, though likely not for several years.
Negotiations on Safeguard Information System (SIS) under the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA)
These negotiations mainly concerned requirements for a Safeguard Information System (SIS) through which Parties are to report on how safeguards are being addressed and respected. As summarized by Raja Jarrah in Issue #6 of this Newsletter “What we could have got out of Durban was some minimumstandards for reporting, a format, a review mechanism, and perhaps even a grievance procedure. What we got instead was a tame declaration that all safeguards should be reported on, as transparently as possible, according to a timetable that will be discussed next year. And there will be another meeting next year to discuss whether any more guidance than that is needed.” One point of debate was types of information on safeguards that should be included; several rounds of contentious negotiations resulted in weakened language that does not specify any types of information to be reported (see below).
Many actors are concerned with the weakness of the safeguards reporting requirements. However, there may be additional opportunities to clarify and strengthen SIS requirements in the lead up to and at CoP18. WRI suggests that this can be a “second chance,” particularly if the Parties carefully consider the various existing international safeguards with a view to better harmonizing these myriad requirements under the UN FCCC SIS framework. However, they also point out that Parties may be reticent to further open discussion on the key issues of “transparency, consistency, comprehensiveness and effectiveness of the information” in the SIS.
Full CoP17 Decisions can be downloaded here.
Extracts from Decision 2/CP.17
(Outcome of the work of the AWG-LCA, Policy approaches and positive incentives on issues relating to [REDD+])
63. Agrees that, regardless of the source or type of financing, [REDD+ activities]… should be consistent with the relevant provisions included in decision 1/CP.16, including the safeguards in its appendix I…;
65. Agrees that results-based finance provided to developing country Parties that is new, additional and predictable may come from a wide variety of sources, public and private, bilateral and multilateral, including alternative sources;
66. Considers that… appropriate market-based approaches could be developed by the Conference of the Parties to support the results-based actions by developing country Parties…;
67. Notes that non-market-based approaches, such as joint mitigation and adaptation approaches …could be developed;
68. Encourages the operating entities of the financial mechanism of the Convention to provide results-based finance for the actions referred to in decision 1/CP.16, paragraph 73;
73. Requests [AWG-LCA]… to consider the submissions by Parties and admitted observer organizations referred to in paragraph 69 above, the technical paper referred to in paragraph 71 above and the report on the outcomes of the workshop referred to in paragraph 72 above with the aim of reporting on progress made and any recommendations to the Conference of the Parties at its eighteenth session
Extracts from Decision 12/CP.17
(Guidance on systems for providing information on how safeguards are addressed and respected and modalities relating to forest reference emission levels and forest reference levels…)
I. Guidance on systems for providing information on how safeguards are addressed and respected
1. Notes that the implementation of the safeguards referred to in appendix I to decision 1/CP.16, and information on how these safeguards are being addressed and respected, should support national strategies or action plans and be included in, where appropriate, all phases of implementation referred to in decision 1/CP.16, paragraph 73, of the activities referred to in paragraph 70 of the same decision;
2. Agrees that systems for providing information on how the safeguards referred to in appendix I to decision 1/CP.16 are addressed and respected should, taking into account national circumstances and respective capabilities, and recognizing national sovereignty and legislation, and relevant international obligations and agreements, and respecting gender considerations:
(a) Be consistent with the guidance identified in decision 1/CP.16, appendix I, paragraph 1;
(b) Provide transparent and consistent information that is accessible by all relevant stakeholders and updated on a regular basis;
(c) Be transparent and flexible to allow for improvements over time;
(d) Provide information on how all of the safeguards referred to in appendix I to decision 1/CP.16 are being addressed and respected;
(e) Be country-driven and implemented at the national level;
(f) Build upon existing systems, as appropriate;
3. Agrees also that developing country Parties undertaking the activities referred to in decision 1/CP.16, paragraph 70, should provide a summary of information on how all of the safeguards referred to in decision 1/CP.16, appendix I, are being addressed and respected throughout the implementation of the activities;
6. Also requests the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice, at its thirty-sixth session, to consider the need for further guidance to ensure transparency, consistency, comprehensiveness and effectiveness when informing on how all safeguards are addressed and respected and, if appropriate, to consider additional guidance, and to report to the Conference of the Parties at its eighteenth session;
II. Modalities for forest reference emission levels and forest reference levels
7. Agrees that…forest reference emission levels and/or forest reference levels expressed in tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent per year are benchmarks for assessing each country’s performance in implementing… [REDD activities];
8. Decides that forest reference emission levels and/or forest reference levels, …shall be established taking into account decision 4/CP.15, paragraph 7, and maintaining consistency with anthropogenic forest-related greenhouse gas emissions by sources and removals by sinks as contained in each country’s greenhouse gas inventories;
9. Invites Parties to submit information and rationale on the development of their forest reference emission levels and/or forest reference levels, including details of national circumstances and if adjusted include details on how the national circumstances were considered…;
10. Agrees that a step-wise approach to national forest reference emission level and/or forest reference level development may be useful, enabling Parties to improve the forest reference emission level and/or forest reference level by incorporating better data, improved methodologies and, where appropriate, additional pools…;
11. Acknowledges that sub-national forest reference emission levels and/or forest reference levels may be elaborated as an interim measure, while transitioning to a national forest reference emission level and/or forest reference level…;
12. Agrees that a developing country Party should update a forest reference emission level and/or forest reference level periodically…;
13. Invites developing country Parties, on a voluntary basis and when deemed appropriate, to submit proposed forest reference emission levels and/or forest reference levels…;
Annex - Guidelines for submissions of information on reference levels
Each developing country Party aiming to undertake the actions listed in decision 1/CP.16, paragraph 70 [i.e., REDD+], should include in its submission information that is transparent, complete, consistent with guidance agreed by the Conference of the Parties (COP) and accurate information for the purpose of allowing a technical assessment of the data, methodologies and procedures used in the construction of a forest reference emission level and/or forest reference level… include[ing]:
(a) Information that was used by Parties in constructing a forest reference emission level and/or forest reference level, including historical data, in a comprehensive and transparent way;
(b) Transparent, complete, consistent and accurate information, including methodological information, used at the time of construction of forest reference emission levels and/or forest reference levels, including, inter alia, as appropriate, a description of data sets, approaches, methods, models, if applicable and assumptions used, descriptions of relevant policies and plans, and descriptions of changes from previously submitted
(c) Pools and gases, and activities listed in decision 1/CP.16, paragraph 70, which have been included in forest reference emission levels and/or forest reference levels and the reasons for omitting a pool and/or activity from the construction of forest reference emission levels and/or forest reference levels, noting that significant pools and/or activities should not be excluded;
(d) The definition of forest used in the construction of forest reference emission levels and/or forest reference levels and, if appropriate, in case there is a difference with the definition of forest used in the national greenhouse gas inventory or in reporting to other international organizations, an explanation of why and how the definition used in the construction of forest reference emission levels and/or forest reference levels was chosen.
10th plenary meeting, 9 December 2011
Adapted from UN-REDD SEPC Draft 4 Supporting Document,
The 4th draft of the UN-REDD Social and Environmental Principles and Criteria (SEPC) has been developed with inputs from extensive public consultation, including a multi-stakeholder workshop in February 2012. UN-REDD has also prepared a supporting document including information about:
• The application of the SEPC at all REDD phases;
• Linkages to other UN-REDD tools, including Benefits and Risks Tool (BeRT), Guidelines on Stakeholder Engagement and Free, Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC), and Participatory Governance Assessments for REDD+ (PGA); and
• Linkages between the SEPC and the Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF) Strategic Environmental and Social Assessment (SESA) and Environmental and Social Management Framework (ESMF) and the REDD+ Social and Environmental Standards (SES).
The UN-REDD Programme Policy Board, at its Eighth Policy Board meeting (25-26 March 2012, Asunción, Paraguay), has been invited to consider endorsing SEPC Draft 4 as a guiding framework for the UN-REDD Programme on social and environmental issues.
The UN-REDD SEPC Draft 4 and the related Supporting Document can be downloaded from the 8th Policy Board Meeting Agenda: www.un-redd.org/PolicyBoard/8thPolicyBoard/tabid/78556/Default.aspx
Adapted from http://www.redd-standards.org/comments
The REDD+ Social & Environmental Standards (REDD+ SES) initiative aims to build support for government-led REDD+ programs that make a significant contribution to human rights, poverty alleviation and biodiversity conservation. The draft REDD+ SES Version 2 (released 9 February 2012) was prepared by the Secretariat based on feedback from stakeholders in countries using the standards and other stakeholders, and has been reviewed and revised by the International Standards Committee. This revised version aims to:
· streamline the principles, criteria and indicators to reduce duplications and redundancy;
· address gaps so that REDD+ SES includes all social and environmental elements of the Cancun (UN FCCC) safeguards;
· make the indicators simpler to understand and translate reduce the overall number of indicators; and
· maintain the quality and comprehensiveness of the REDD+ SES framework.
Comments have been invited on this document during a 60-day period from 9 February until 9 April 2012. The draft will be revised in response to comments received. A second public comment period is planned for May and June 2012 before finalization of REDD+ SES Version 2.
Documents can be freely downloaded and comments can be submitted at www.redd-standards.org/comments.
Adapted from REDD+ Partnership website:
The REDD+ Partnership, launched in 2010, serves as an interim platform for its currently 73 partner countries to scale up actions and finance for REDD. “The core objective of the Partnership is to contribute to the global battle against climate change by serving as an interim platform for the Partners to scale up REDD+ actions and finance, and to that end to take immediate action, including improving the effectiveness, efficiency, transparency and coordination of REDD+ initiatives and financial instruments, to facilitate among other things knowledge transfer, capacity enhancement, mitigation actions and technology development and transfer.”
The most recent REDD+ Partnership meetings (27 - 28 February 2012, United Kingdom) focused on issues of REDD+ financing. Proposed elements of discussion included:
• State of REDD+: Progress made on REDD+ to date, and update on fast-start financing
• Barriers to accessing financing: Developing country experience, and project developer experience
• Barriers to delivering financing: Developed country experience, multilateral fund experience, and perspective of developing country
• What are the key challenges of delivering REDD+ action? Delivering benefits to stakeholders, driving environmental integrity: getting to compliance-grade REDD+, and the challenge of implementation
• Can non-government finance provide solutions (both market and non-market)? Possible role of insurance, lessons from the voluntary market, possible role of forest bonds, indigenous-led projects, and lessons from other public-private cooperation
• Market approaches to REDD+: what might they look like? What does a ‘compliance-grade’ REDD+ credit look like?
• Non-market approaches to REDD+: what might they look like? How can non-market sources of finance be accessed?
More information and links to presentations are available here.
CED Newsletter No. 001, at www.forestpeoples.org/sites/fpp/files/publication/2012/02/focus-redd-ced-newsletter.pdf
The Cameroonian Centre for Environment and Development (CED) issued its first newsletter examining progress on REDD+ in the country (Nov-Dec 2011). It covers, among other issues:
• Information about Cameroon’s new membership in UN-REDD and ongoing engagement with the World Bank under the FCPF;
• A brief overview of 3 ongoing REDD pilot projects;
• Review of the R-PP development, including related civil society training;
• Various REDD related workshops, including a November 2011 workshop focused on land tenure pressures in Cameroon and Central Africa, and potential impacts of REDD+ on land acquisition. The workshop aimed to establish a framework between research organizations and CSOs;
• Exploration of synergies between REDD and other forest management/ governance initiatives; and
• Information on the importance of REDD safeguards.
Adapted from CED Newsletter No. 001, 2011
As reported in the CED (Cameroon) Newsletter No. 001, Central African countries adopted and released a joint statement during CoP17 in Durban in order to promote REDD+ in the Congo Basin. This statement involves 7 countries from COMIFAC (Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of Congo, Republic of Congo and Rwanda), 8 partner countries (Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Norway, United States, United Kingdom), and the European Union. In this statement, COMIFAC countries pledge to strengthen forest governance in the Congo Basin. Partner countries will align with this commitment to gradually increase financial and technical assistance to develop and implement REDD+ strategies in Central African countries.
New Working Paper:
“Map of SBSTA Submissions: REDD+ Safeguard Information System”
Adapted from http://www.wri.org/publication/map-of-sbsta-submissions
In June 2011, the UNFCCC SBSTA requested inputs on a guidance document for its REDD+ “safeguard information system” (SIS). This recent WRI Working Paper describes and summarizes the 26 submissions made to date by various Parties and groups. Their analysis identifies several key areas of inputs/ recommendations, including: the role of the SIS (its purpose and qualities); types of information that Parties should provide; how to collect and provide information; and other elements of the international safeguard system. While little detail for the SIS was agreed to at Durban (CoP17), these inputs may provide important resources in the lead up to CoP18.
Citation: Larsen, Gaia et al. 2012. “Map of SBSTA Submissions: REDD+ Safeguard Information System.” WRI Working Paper. World Resources Institute, Washington DC. Available online at http://www.wri.org/gfi
New Land Tenure, Forest Governance and REDD Lessons Learning Report Highlights
“Threats to Village Land in Tanzania: Implications for REDD+ Benefit- Sharing Arrangements”
(Abstract of Tanzanian case study): …. With a legal framework designed to promote decentralization and more than a decade of experience with Participatory Forest Management, Tanzania appears ready to capitalize on REDD+. On closer examination, however, villagers face multiple obstacles in securing rights over land and realizing forest benefits. This paper examines five challenges—classification of General Land; recognition of Village Land; recognition of village government; transfer of Village Land to General or Reserved Land; and Participatory Forest Management procedures. Legal ambiguities and contradictions coupled with inconsistent implementation and governance structures pose unique threats to the success of REDD+ in Tanzania. With REDD+ infrastructure yet to be developed, however, opportunities exist for these challenges to be addressed. The current legal and institutional framework needs clarification and strengthening to make REDD+ a success for all Tanzanians.
This case study appears in a lessons learning report edited by Naughton-Treves and Day (2012). The full report also includes relevant case studies from Mozambique, Nepal, India, Cambodia, Laos, and Equator.
Tanzania Case study by: Peter Veit (WRI), Darryl Vhugen (Landesa), Jonathan Miner (Landesa)
Citation of full report: Naughton-Treves, L. and C. Day. eds. 2012. Lessons about Land Tenure, Forest Governance and REDD+. Case Studies from Africa, Asia and Latin America. Madison, Wisconsin: UW-Madison Land Tenure Center.http://rmportal.net/library/content/translinks/2011/land-tenure-center/ltfc-mgmt-workshop/lessons-on-land-tenure-forest-governance-and-redd
CIFOR REDD+ Initiatives Map
Adapted from http://blog.cifor.org/5623/new-cifor-map-gives-first-global-overview-of-redd/#.T242EtW0KuJ
At CoP17 in Durban, the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) launched an interactive mapping tool designed to give a global overview of how forest-rich countries are developing policies and projects on REDD+. This map brings together CIFOR research and existing REDD+ data to give a comprehensive overview of the implementation of 340 REDD+ programmes in 52 countries around the world.
The map is available here: http://www.forestclimatechange.org/redd-map/
“Lessons for REDD+ from measures to control illegal logging in Indonesia"
Luttrell et al 2011
This detailed report examines lessons learned for REDD+ from a range of efforts to control illegal logging in Indonesia, such as the Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT) process; bilateral agreements between Indonesia and major importers of timber; and market instruments such as timber certification. Key lessons/ recommendations include:
• Adopt an approach that harmonises common REDD+ and related MRV requirements
• Develop mechanisms for exchange of data and transparency both within and between institutions
• Enhance independence in the design of REDD+ MRV by ensuring the separation of mandates for accreditation, standard-setting, monitoring and verification
• Develop the role of civil society monitors and public oversight mechanisms to strengthen the credibility of REDD+ processes
• Ensure clarity of procedure for independent REDD+ validation and verification systems
• Match the design of REDD+ systems and institutions to a realistic and rigorous ex ante assessment of capacity to help avoid the process being stalled
• Clarify the roles and mandates of local and central government, as well as ways to accommodate jurisdictional differences within a national REDD+ system
• Acknowledge that different objectives and audiences (e.g. international credibility, domestic reform) have different MRV needs
• Ensure that multi-stakeholder processes play a central role in REDD+ design and implementation
• Ensure buy-in from the private sector by guaranteeing and demonstrating the benefits of engaging in REDD+
• Pay particular attention to aspects of law enforcement
Citation: Luttrell, C., Obidzinski, K., Brockhaus, M., Muharrom, E., Petkova, E., Wardell, A. and Halperin, J. 2011. Lessons for REDD+ from measures to control illegal logging in Indonesia. United Nations Office on
Drugs and Crime and Center for International Forestry Research, Jakarta and Bogor, Indonesia
Draft FAO ‘Voluntary Guidelines on the Tenure of Land, Fisheries, and Forests’ released
Adapted from www.fao.org/news/story/en/item/128907/icode/
(CFS) at a special session in Rome in mid-May. The draft Guidelines available here: http://www.fao.org/cfs/cfs-home/cfs-land-tenure/en/
 The article text is based on interview responses from Mr. Meshack, but no direct quotes are included and any errors or misinterpretations are the responsibility of the article author (Jessica Campese, freelance consultant).
 This is updated from the last AWF newsletter submission to include training of one person on REDD social and environmental safeguards.
 Kovacevic, Michelle. Blog Post December 14 2011. Durban talks both good and bad for REDD+, says expert. CIFOR Blog (http://blog.cifor.org/6507/durban-talks-both-good-and-bad-for-redd-says-expert/#.T23aBtW0KuI), citing Louis Verchot, CIFOR Principal Scientist
 In addition to financing considerations by States Parties, the Forest Peoples’ Programme highlights that indigenous peoples at Durban called for more direct access to financing to support projects developed and implemented by indigenous peoples. See http://www.forestpeoples.org/topics/redd-and-related-initiatives/news/2012/02/durban-cop-17-unfccc-fudges-decision-climate-financ
 See Forest Peoples’ Programme 20 February, 2012. Durban COP 17: UNFCCC fudges decision on climate finance and makes little progress on REDD+ safeguard implementation. http://www.forestpeoples.org/topics/redd-and-related-initiatives/news/2012/02/durban-cop-17-unfccc-fudges-decision-climate-financ. See also http://www.redd-monitor.org/2012/01/24/durban-feedback-1-saving-the-market-not-the-climate/ andhttp://news.mongabay.com/2012/0117-interview_czebiniak_greenpeace_redd.html, as cited by Larsen, Gaia and Davis, Crystal. 22 February 2012. Making the Most of a Second Chance: What Next for REDD+ Safeguards? WRI Insights. http://insights.wri.org/news/2012/02/making-most-second-chance-what-next-redd-safeguards
 Larsen, Gaia and Davis, Crystal. 22 February 2012 http://insights.wri.org/news/2012/02/making-most-second-chance-what-next-redd-safeguards
 Civil society feedback suggests that these consultations were relatively inclusive. See, for example, reflections on the process and written comments from the Forest People’s Programme: www.forestpeoples.org/topics/climate-forests/un-redd
 Equatorial Guinea and Gabon though members of COMIFAC did not sign this statement