About the newsletter
The TZ-REDD quarterly newsletter is a part of the TFCG/MJUMITA project funded by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Norway. The newsletters aim to keep practitioners, donors, universities and CSOs up-to-date about REDD projects in Tanzania, upcoming events, and REDD developments around the world.
Click here to download the PDF version of the newsletter.
Issue No. 6, January 2012
Progress on carbon monitoring, reporting and verification
Rumor has it…
The next draft of the Tanzania National REDD+ Strategy is expected to be released shortly… Look for an update in the next issue!
Submitted by: Dr. E. Zahabu
Tanzania has a total of 33.4 million hectares of forests and woodlands, rich in biodiversity and in carbon. There is thus high potential for Tanzania to contribute to and benefit from REDD+. As REDD+ is a result-based mechanism, countries will be required to quantify their achievements in REDD+. Therefore, it is a key priority for countries to establish robust and transparent forest carbon monitoring systems.
The most commonly debated subject under forest carbon monitoring is Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) of forest carbon. MRV provides a system on how to account for the amount of forest carbon, including changes over time. The main focus is on national level reporting to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), and the subsequent, anticipated accounting of valuable carbon credits at different levels that contributes to the country as a whole.
There is a discussion underway by the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technical Advice (SBSTA) of the UNFCCC on methodological guidance for activities related to REDD+. This article draws heavily on this discussion with regard to issues related to MRV.
The Components of MRV
Measurement refers to the collection of data and information for determination of changes in carbon stocks and green house gas (GHG) emissions from changes in forest cover, and the enhancement of forest carbon stocks.
Reporting deals with the compilation and availability of national data and statistics in GHG inventories. Reporting requirements to the UNFCCC (National Communications) may cover information on emissions and removals of GHGs and details of the activities a country has undertaken to fulfill its commitments under UNFCCC.
Verification refers to the process of independently checking the accuracy and reliability of reported information or the procedures used to generate information.
Baseline/Reference level for REDD+ payments
The baseline/reference level is a benchmark against which achievements on REDD+ will be credited. It entails historical trends and a projected ‘business as usual’ scenario against which additional carbon benefits resulting from carbon projects can be determined. The baseline/reference level construction for REDD+ involves:
Forest Reference Emission Level (REL) - the estimated gross emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in a geographical area within a reference time period.
Forest Reference Level (RL) - the estimated net emissions or removal from a geographical area within a reference time period. In addition to deforestation and forest degradation, RL covers sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks.
Setting up national baseline for REDD+ in Tanzania
Tanzania has started setting up a MRV system for the determination of REL/RL. In line with the methodological guidance for activities related to REDD+ under discussion by UNFCCC, Tanzania is undertaking a national forest resources inventory and estimating historical deforestation and forest degradation and/or growth rates.
National Forest Resources Monitoring and Assessment (NAFORMA)
Tanzania has not previously carried out a national forest inventory. Therefore the starting point for REDD+ has included initiating a National Forest Resources Monitoring and Assessment (NAFORMA).NAFORMA will:
– build capacity on national forest inventories and remote sensing,
– determine the current land use cover/forest extent,
– determine the current forest growth stock,
– identify drivers of deforestation and forest degradation, and
– design a forest monitoring system using permanent sample plots (PSPs).
NAFORMA will thus produce most of the essential inputs for REL/RL establishment. The first phase of NAFORMA will be completed in December 2012.
Estimation of historical national deforestation
The FAO Forest Resources Assessment Remote Sensing Survey (FRA-RSS) establishes a continuous process of assessing the global forest condition over a 5 to 10 year interval. This assessment is done by means of Remote Sensing Survey (RSS),which samples ‘tiles’ all over the globe and produces data at the continent level – not the national level. There are 79 RSS tiles in Tanzania. This is, however, too little to measure national forest cover change with any degree of accuracy. With assistance from the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Union, the FAO FRA-RSS tiles will be overlaid on the 850 NAFORMA PSPs clusters to enhance MRV capacity. The forest cover change will then be assessed at three periods: 1980-1990, 1990-2000, and 2000-2010.The continuous assessment in the PSPs linked up with the continuous FRA-RSS process will also ensure continuity of the MRV process in Tanzania. This work is currently being done under the support of the UN-REDD Tanzania programme in collaboration with NAFORMA.
Estimation of forest degradation
The remote sensing community has proposed several ways to measure deforestation accurately and reasonably cheap. Measuring forest degradation (loss of biomass within a forest) remotely is much more problematic. An alternative way to measure changes on standing carbon is carrying out a ground inventory based on PSPs.
Tanzania, like other developing countries, has very little reliable data on forest stock changes. NAFORMA provides a future solution to this problem. Re-measurement of existing PSPs established for previous research can also be utilised. The UN-REDD Tanzania programme is commissioning institutions with PSPs to assess degradation/carbon sequestration in different vegetation types across the country.
It is anticipated that most of the data for the establishment of a national REL/RL for Tanzania will be available towards the end of 2012.
Since the last issue of this newsletter [http://www.tnrf.org/reddnewsletter5] , Stakeholders in Tanzania have been busy getting ready for the 17th Conference of Parties (CoP17) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UN FCCC), taking place November 28th to December 10th in Durban, South Africa. Some preparatory activities have been REDD specific. Some have been focused on other climate change issues, but are relevant as part of REDD’s larger context. A few examples are highlighted below.
Pilot Projects Endorse Messages for CoP17 on ‘Making REDD Work’
Adapted from http://www.tnrf.org/node/22536
The nine REDD pilot projects have endorsed key messages for COP 17 that they feel are important to “make REDD work.” The messages call for adequate finance and strong social and environmental safeguards. Further, the NGOs state that REDD, if done right, can bring positive benefits.
Based on their hands-on experience, the NGOs implementing the pilot projects have realized that without adequate financing and the delivery of direct benefits, REDD runs the risk of being unfair and not effective. Therefore, the NGOs encourage the international community to urgently come to an agreement on, and support implementation of, REDD financing mechanisms.
The Vice President of Tanzania and stakeholders from across sectors welcomed the Trans-African Caravan of Hope to Dar es Salaam on November 16. The Caravan is a campaign from across African countries telling climate change stories. Read more here: http://www.forumcc.org/content/trans-african-caravan-hope-dar
Additionally, REDD brings real risks to the environment and people. The pilot projects encourage that strong, effective social and environmental safeguards are in place to help ensure that these risks are minimized. They believe the international community should require participating countries to adopt a robust mechanism for reporting on performance against environmental and social safeguards.
Finally, despite the risks, REDD can bring good, and the NGOs believe that is an important message to share with decision makers and the international community in Durban.
Pre-Durban COP17 Policy Dialogue Workshop
Adapted from submissions by Latif Amars and presentations made at the Workshop (www.forumcc.org)
Tanzanian Civil Society Forum on Climate Change (ForumCC) and Citizens Global Platform (CGP) hosted a “Pre-Durban COP17 Policy Dialogue Workshop” on November 11thto support preparation and mobilization for COP17. They welcomed the Trans-African Caravan of Hope and shared ForumCC’s findings on a Climate Change Policy Tracking Study.
Ladislaus Kyaruzi, from the Vice Presidents' Office, gave a presentation on the status of negotiations and outstanding issues for Durban. He indicated that Tanzania is taking a common position with other ‘least developed countries’ on REDD, including calling for predictable funding, preferably through a market based mechanism, as well as financial, technological and capacity building support to address, among others, methodological issues, leakage, non permanency, additionality, equity and human rights.
CSOs also developed joint messages to the government of Tanzania (GoT), including calling for meaningful inclusion (not just consultation) of civil society in climate change strategy development and in climate change governing bodies such as the National Climate Change Steering Committee. CSOs urged GoT to make climate change a greater priority, including by allocating more resources to adequately address it and help communities to adapt. GoT should also work closely with civil society and the private sector, recognizing their expertise and understanding of issues on the ground and in practice.
Additionally, CSOs called on the government to associate themselves with the African Civil Society Position, which calls on the Presidents of Africa to prevent catastrophic climate change by exerting pressure on Annex I (‘developed’) countries to, among others:
Sign up to legally binding commitments that reduce emissions and limit global warming to well below 1.5°C
Fairly share the effort of curbing climate change. Domestic emission reductions by developed countries should be commensurate with science and equity, and should enable a just transition in all countries; and
Ensure that polluters pay, rather than the poor. Developed countries must honour their obligations and pay at least 1.5% of their GNP to help the poor adapt and develop cleanly and sustainably.
Climate Change Hearings II: Have you heard us?
Adapted from www.forumcc.org
ForumCC and TNRF organized Climate Change Hearings II: Have you heard us?(18 November, 2011) to bring to the fore the voice of those hardest hit by the impacts of climate change in Tanzania, and to give a human face to the problem of climate change in the country. A video of the Hearings is available at www.forumcc.org.
Sharing experiences and lessons learned… within Tanzania and across borders
REDD Stakeholders Feedback Workshop
The National REDD Task Force hosted a feedback workshop for REDD stakeholders from 3-4 October at Blue Pearl Hotel, Dar es Salaam. Overall, it was clear that progress on REDD readiness is being made on several fronts. At the same time, much remains to be done and there are several challenges ahead…
CCIAM in Tanzania
Among the many presentations and updates at the REDD Stakeholders Feedback Workshop was a presentation on the Climate Change Impacts, Adaptation and Mitigation (CCIAM) Program. CCIAM, a 5-year program launched in 2009, is funded by the Royal Norwegian Embassy and implemented by Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA) with UMB as the main Norwegian partner. Its objective is to develop and sustain adequacy in national capacity to participate in climate change. Particular emphasis is given to REDD initiatives, including through implementation of research projects on REDD and PFM sites. These projects aim in part to make links with the nine ongoing pilot projects. Some examples include:
A full list of research projects and links to project summaries are available from the CCIAM website (www.suanet.ac.tz/cciam).
In addition to this research, CCIAM focuses on communications and publicity, capacity building (human resources and infrastructure) and student exchanges. The programme is currently funding 50 Masters and 17 PhD students who are at various stages of their studies. CCIAM is building sustainability of its impacts through, among others, awarding training scholarships to collaborating institutions and environment line ministries, working with NGOs and communities, strengthening communications on climate change, facilitating scholar exchange programs, participating in international meetings on climate change, and strengthening metrological station networks.
CCIAM published its semi-annual newsletter in July 2011 (http://www.suanet.ac.tz/cciam/docs/CCIAM_newsleter_Vol_1_no1.pdf). Look for the next issue in January 2012! Also see more at: www.suanet.ac.tz/cciam
A packed workshop agenda included information and updates on the following:
The Status of the REDD+ Program in Tanzania, including an update that 5 REDD+ Technical Working Groups have been established on: MRV systems; financial mechanism; energy drivers; agriculture drivers; and REDD+ Safeguards. These will become operational in the ‘next phase’ of the program, which has been approved by RNE and is set to begin shortly.
- MRV, including National Carbon Monitoring Centre (NCMC) and NAFORMA
- CoP decisions and discussions within the UN FCCC on REDD+
- The UN-REDD Program, including an overview of an ongoing UN-REDD funded consultancy on estimating the costs of REDD
- Safeguards development in Tanzania, including a review of the safeguards workshop held in September 2011; and
- Review and discussion of a proposed national definition for forests in Tanzania.
JGI, MCDI, TaTEDO, TFCG/MJUMITA, and WCST, and WWF also gave updates on progress, achievements and challenges on the REDD pilot projects they are implementing.
REDD Realities: Learning from REDD pilot projects to make REDD Work…
TNRF, in collaboration with all 9 REDD pilot projects in Tanzania, published a lessons learned report, "REDD Realities: Learning from REDD Pilot Projects to Make REDD Work." While the nine pilot projects have diverse aims and contexts, some common lessons are emerging. With the aim of furthering learning and action on equitable and effective REDD, this publication highlights some of these key messages and lessons.
The pilots’ experience demonstrates that, while it’s important to recognize the risks , REDD can bring good. In addition being an important contribution to climate change mitigation, REDD can help conserve forest ecosystems and biodiversity and deliver substantial benefits to communities, as well as providing new motivation and opportunities for sustainable forest management and governance more broadly.
REDD also poses risks, particularly for forest communities. Whether REDD delivers on its promised benefits and avoids adverse impacts strongly depends on, among others: sufficient and appropriate finance; strong social and environmental safeguards; fair and equitable benefit sharing; land and carbon tenure in favor of communities; and full and effective participation. The publication explores some lessons learned among the pilot projects with regard to these issues.
The publication can be downloaded at http://www.tnrf.org/files/e-REDD%20Realities.pdf
Adapted from http://www.tnrf.org/blog/
At CoP17 in Durban, thirty representatives from Tanzania and Mozambique gathered to begin a dialogue and exchange on REDD. The event, hosted by TNRF, the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) and WWF- Coastal East Africa (CEA), was the start of what is hoped will be an ongoing cross-border REDD relationship.
Both governments provided overviews of their experiences with the REDD readiness process, with Paula Panguene, National Director of the Ministry of Coordination of Environmental Affairs (MICOA) speaking about Mozambique, and Dr. Felician Kilahama, Director of Forestry and Beekeeping Division, sharing experiences from Tanzania. Two representatives from civil society gave updates on REDD developments from their perspectives.
It was clear that there are many areas where information sharing and lessons learning would be beneficial to both countries. Specifically, participants identified a need for cross-border dialogue on:
Engagement with private sector and REDD
Interaction between local and national strategy developments – learning from the different country design frameworks on how to best integrate national development and on-the-ground implementation.
Other areas identified where ongoing collaboration would be useful were MRV, reference levels, learning from NGOs and pilot projects and research and training.
For more information on this initial dialogue, see http://www.tnrf.org/blog/.
Looking at the bigger policy picture of climate change in Tanzania…
TNRF and ForumCC published a new information brief, "Climate Change Policy in Tanzania – Is It Needed?" The brief explores the current climate change policies and strategies in Tanzania (or the lack thereof). Specifically, it looks at the impact that climate change is and will continue to have on development efforts in Tanzania, and it offers recommendations to ensure that development efforts are not undermined by climate change. The report is available at: www.tnrf.org/files/Climate%20Change%20Brief.pdf
Project: Advancing REDD in the Kondoa Irangi Hills Forests
Facilitating organization: African Wildlife Foundation (AWF)
Submitted by Mr. Thadeus Binamungu
Forest resource assessment and JFM Plan development: The Participatory Forest Resource Assessment and the draft Joint Forest Management Plans for Salanga and Isabe Forest Reserves covering 13 villages have been completed. A total of 22,031 ha of miombo woodland forest and 21 villages have been identified for inclusion in the project. Introductory meetings have been held in all 21 villages. JFM planning has started in 13 villages, covering 10,114 ha. One of two planned carbon measurements has been completed, and baseline carbon stocks and projected annual CO2 emissions savings have been calculated. Formal mapping is near completion. The government has agreed to allow 80% of the benefits from the JFM forests to go to local communities.
Land Use Management Planning: AWF is facilitating participatory land use management planning in all 21 project villages. Land use plans (LUPs) have been completed for 10 of the 21 villages so far. The process will lead to the delivery of Village Land Certificates, and later to land titles for all of the households residing in the villages, as well as for groups such as pastoralists for their lands. The land titles will ensure land ownership security to poor and vulnerable groups and will enable them to use land as an asset for development.
Verification of stakeholders and livelihood options: Mapping of livelihood options and stakeholder analysis has been completed and follow-up field visits have been made to verify stakeholders’ interests, capacities and possible roles. The study team has also assessed the current status of identified livelihood options.
Initiation of livelihood strategies: Sixty lead farmers in five villages were trained on conservation and improved agriculture. These farmers have established 60 demonstration farms, on which crop productivity has increased by eight times. Each of the 60 lead farmers harvested an average of 20 extra bags of maize per acre at a value of TZS 30,000/bag, resulting in a total added value of (TZS 20 X 30,000 X 60 =) 36,000,000 Tsh, equivalent to US$ 24,000.
Baselines for selected climate change adaptation indicators: Data for selected indicators were collected in 16 villages to establish climate change adaptation baselines. This will enable follow-up monitoring in future.
Training for REDD+, including Safeguards: The project has supported trainings for 62 women and 87 men in participating villages, which provided information on a range of key elements of REDD. Field based training on carbon measurement has been provided to 5 men and 2 women. Training of trainers has been conducted with 14 men and 2 women. Four men and 1 woman have learned GPS skills. Training on JFM and forest resources assessment and their linkages with REDD has been offered to 23 men and 16 women in local communities. Additionally, 41 men and 41 women have been trained on land use planning and REDD. Further, the National REDD+ Task Force and Secretariat organized a training from 12th – 14th September 2011 on REDD+ social and environmental safeguards, including to address potential risks from REDD for local communities. The need for safeguards to minimize potential harms and maximize positive impacts of REDD+ programs is recognized by the Kolo Hills team, and experiences and knowledge on REDD+ safeguards were shared during the training.
Project: Building REDD Readiness in the Masito Ugalla Ecosystem Pilot Area …
Implementing organization: Jane Goodall Institute (JGI)
Institutionalizing Forest Management Plans for REDD: Experience from the Masito Forest
Submitted by Edwin Nssoko
For several decades, forests in Tanzania have been constantly threatened by anthropogenic activities such as encroachment, illegal timber harvesting, charcoal making, shifting cultivation, and wildfires. This has been a major challenge for forest conservation in Mpanda and Kigoma districts. A major obstacle has been integrating economic, social and environmental considerations in sustainable forest management.
To address this situation the JGI-REDD project has made significant steps towards improving forest resources management through development and implementation of participatory forest management plans. The management plans will be instruments for sustainable forest management, protecting about 91,000ha of indigenous forests currently classified as General Land. This approach is in line with the 1998 Forest Policy, which emphasizes that all forests should be managed based on approved management plans such as those being developed under the project.
This will be the first REDD readiness pilot project to institutionalize participatory forest management plan with the aim of enabling communities and high biodiversity forests in western Tanzania to benefit from REDD.
Recently, the JUWAMMA (Jumuiyaya Watunza Msituwa Masito) full council met in Uvinza Town to discuss and develop participatory forest management plans that will be used for the next five years (2012 to 2017). The meeting involved 35 CBO members from seven villages located along Lake Tanganyika shoreline within Kigoma district, which together protect about 91,000ha of indigenous forest. JUWAMMA also invited Village Chairpersons, Village Executive Officers, and Hamlet Chairpersons from the seven villages, as well as district staff and REDD project staff.
The local communities surrounding the Masito forest were able to provide information regarding available forest resources and biodiversity, to discuss their rights and privileges, to prepare by-laws, and to develop business plans for the sale of timber and non-timber forest products, tourist activities, and carbon credits from the forest. Participants also had detailed discussions on engaging local communities in fire protection, fire prevention and suppression, fire-lines establishment, maintenance, patrolling, and law enforcement. More importantly, participants emphasized the protection of watersheds including rivers, streams, wells, and wetlands in order to protect the forest from soil erosion. This erosion is currently contributing to the siltation of Lake Tanganyika, which is the major source of fish and other resources and biodiversity in the area.
Project: Combining REDD, PFM and FSC certification in South-Eastern Tanzania
Implementing organization: Mpingo Conservation and Development Initiative (MCDI)
Fire management as a focus for carbon offsets: Analysis suggests that fire is currently the main deforestation and forest degradation driver in the project area. Fire control will therefore be a focus of the project. Lessons learned under the project will have application for the region, as wild bush fires affect large swathes of Tanzania and southern and eastern Africa. A successful strategy and methodology could benefit protected areas and forests on government, community and privately owned lands. A focus on fire control for REDD also has the advantage of avoiding leakage.
Developing carbon monitoring techniques for miombo woodlands: The miombo woodlands in which MCDI is implementing REDD are highly variable on local scales. Proper statistical analysis requires data, which roughly follow the normal distribution. However, the high heterogeneity of miombo woodlands means that a small sample plot size will yield too many plots with zero or close to zero biomass, and a similarly disproportionate number with very high biomass (compared to the mean). Such a distribution limits the analysis that can be properly conducted on the resulting data. MCDI, working in partnership with the University of Edinburgh (from the UK), have thus adopted much larger 'super-plots' (300 metres squared = 9ha) with several smaller sub-plots. These 'super-plots' are much harder work to establish; MCDI has established only 25, when smaller plot sizes will allow >100. However, the cleaner statistical distribution will support more robust and accurate MARV going forward.
Challenges: Approved REDD monitoring methods are still developing. To date, the project has gone forward based on the best available theoretical understanding of REDD science and miombo ecology. However, not all data collected or steps taken will be useful once carbon market requirements are made clearer. The project will need to adjust data collection approaches in some cases, working backward from developing carbon market requirements.
Project: Community-Based REDD Mechanisms for Sustainable Forest Management in Semi-Arid Areas (Case of Ngitili in Shinyanga Region)
Implementing organization: Tanzania Traditional Energy Development and Environment Organization (TaTEDO) in partnership with Development Associates (DASS) and Natural Resource Management and Agroforestry Centre (NAFRAC)
TaTEDO and its partners are working with 11 villages in North/Central Tanzania with the goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions through sustainable forest management and carbon market incentives. It is assisting owners of 250 Ngitilis (traditional method of natural forest regeneration) in Shinyanga rural and Kahama districts to establish a robust local institutional framework to manage restored Ngitilis and to capture benefits arising from REDD.
The project is working with existing formal and informal institutions involved in the management and protection of Ngitilis. The village government plays a key part in the development of by-laws and protection of Ngitilis. However, traditional institutions such as the Sungusungu and (local militia group) and the Kitongoji (sub-village) leaders also have considerable influence and authority on Ngitilis protection.
The project is facing some challenges. Expectations are high, and the longer term benefits of REDD are not clear. The long term security of customary tenure arrangements for REDD in Ngitilis is uncertain. Further, effective and equitable REDD will ultimately require attitude and behavioral changes among all stakeholders, and such changes take significant time to occur.
Nonetheless, progress is already being made. Key project accomplishments include:
Organizing Ngitili owners into carbon groups and associations;
Facilitating training for, among others, Ngtili group strengthening, sustainable forest management, governance and monitoring;
Introducing improved farming techniques such as improved seeds and farm yard manure for improved crop productivity;
Establishing carbon baselines;
Establishing woodlots and facilitating access to alternative and energy efficient technologies such as energy saving cooking stoves, biogas, solar cell-phone multi-chargers and solar lanterns; and
Demarcating and mapping of village, household and 278 Ngitili boundaries in the 11 REDD project villages.
A key next step will be developing land use plans in collaboration with the District Councils and registering Ngitilis for title deeds for secured ownership.
Lessons arising from the project to date include the following:
Information sharing, participation, and learning-by-doing help participating communities develop trust and ownership of REDD projects.
Participation of community stakeholders, including village leadership, is key in facilitating effective REDD design and implementation.
It is possible to integrate REDD in Ngitilis with livestock grazing. This is critical, as livestock grazing has been the main use of Ngitilis for local communities. To help make grazing more sustainable, the project has supported the adoption of improved pasture management techniques and facilitated establishment of alternate fodder sources such as fodder banks.
The energy needs of women and men vary. For instance, solar lanterns, which are more expensive than energy saving stoves, have primarily been purchased by men in the project villages. Efforts to reduce household woodfuel use should consider economic empowerment of women. Engaging in income-earning activities, for example, may assist women in being able to purchase energy saving stoves.
Project: Making REDD Work for Communities and Forest Conservation in Tanzania
Implementing organizations: Tanzania Forest Conservation Group (TFCG) and MJUMITA
Launched in 2009, the project aims to demonstrate a pro-poor approach to REDD. The project is being implemented in 36 villages in two sites. One site includes 140,000 ha of forest and woodland in the Eastern Arc Mountains including villages in Mpwapwa and Kilosa Districts and one site covers 75,000 ha of coastal forests and woodland in Lindi District.
Over the last 3 months, the project has been implementing a more integrated approach to village land use planning, community based forest management and the development of REDD by-laws by carrying out these activities simultaneously. This modified approach aims to address the challenge that some communities only select ‘unthreatened’ forests for inclusion in village forest reserves. By excluding forests that are threatened with deforestation from village forest reserves, there was a risk that there would be no significant reduction in emissions from deforestation and therefore no possibility of generating REDD revenues. The more integrated approach also encourages a more holistic approach to CBFM by placing it in the context of decision making on land and natural resource use for all of the village land. So far the revised approach has worked well and six villages in Lindi and five villages in Kilosa have completed the process. To improve the functioning of village government, the project is also supporting 6 villages to construct their village offices including land registry office.
In December, project partner staff shared the project’s experiences of piloting REDD during the UNFCCC COP 17 meeting. Presentations were made during six side events looking at issues such as gender, standards and general lessons learned.
The biggest challenge is the uncertainty that persists regarding the amount of REDD revenues that will be available and the rules and procedures that will govern who can access those funds and how. Whilst we have found that information about potential REDD revenues is an incentive to communities to protect areas of forest under threat, we have been frank about the uncertainties that surround those funds. As such, we have found that until communities can be more confident that REDD revenues will really materialise they are reluctant to risk including all of their forests.
Another major challenge in both project areas is to identify scalable interventions that can improve agricultural yields whilst also improving livelihoods and reducing GHG emissions. There is still a disconnect between policy discussion on REDD and on agriculture. Agricultural and investment policies include strategies that risk increasing deforestation and include little investment in assisting farmers at the frontier of deforestation who often have little or no capital and minimal access to improved agricultural technologies. So far, REDD readiness investment is not doing enough to support smallholder farmers to shift to more ‘climate friendly’ agriculture or to adopt other livelihood strategies.
For more information about the project please visit our web page www.tfcg.org/makingREDDWork.html
Project: REDD Readiness in Southwest Tanzania…
Facilitating organization: WCS (International)
Adapted from WCS report “Effectiveness of the project, its impacts, challenges and lesson learned”
June 2010 – July 2011
Project achievements over the last year include the following:
All villages in the project area have received environmental education and an introduction to REDD. This has resulted in changes in the perception of forest conservation activities in the communities. The concept of REDD has introduced a broader perception of ecosystem services, and the global role of local forest resources for carbon sequestration.
Areas for reforestation have been identified in participating villages and districts, though land available for reforestation in villages is limited. Participating village residents are aware that the purpose of this reforestation is carbon sequestration.
Carbon monitoring and inventory methods have been developed. Members of communities around the protected areas are receiving training on conducting carbon inventories. With this training, village residents will be able to monitor carbon in their forests. The data collected will allow the project to calculate baselines and project potential carbon sequestration from REDD+.
Economic incentives have been developed to support conservation of key forests. Bee hiving and village reforestation schemes have been well received, for example. In conjunction with the planned activities to tackle wildfires in and around the target forests, economic incentive schemes such as these are providing motivation to people to help prevent fire and reduce burning.
Preliminary carbon estimates have been developed. Using international land cover datasets (1995 – 2005), the project has estimated historical deforestation, and extrapolated this to 2022 to estimate potential carbon savings from REDD. This tier-1 assessment estimates an additional 465,000 tonnes of carbon will be sequestered by mid 2014 through the REDD+ project, and that an estimated additional 1,000,000 tonnes of carbon will be sequestered by 2022 through the ongoing WCS supported Southern Highlands Conservation Programme. The project is now working on a Tier-2 analysis, to assess and refine these estimates.
Challenges the project is addressing include the following:
• There is a need for meetings with councillors and with more stakeholders to ensure local government is fully aware of project activities. As the project works across four districts, these may be costly to arrange.
• Linkages have been developed with all villages adjacent to protected areas covered by the project, but villages further from the protected areas borders also need to be engaged as preliminary studies show that they are potential sources of leakage.
• A lack of definitive boundaries in the four key forests in the Southern Highlands increases the likelihood of encroachment and land tenure conflict. WCS has made a commitment to developing approaches for raising this issue with the relevant authorities.
Lessons learned from the project to date include:
• Establishment of tree nurseries with hybrid fruits supports REDD in the community. Reforestation which includes planting edible fruit trees has a higher likelihood of success as trees will provide income through fruits harvesting and, assuming continued economic viability of the fruits, there is little reason to cut the trees down.
• Environmental education on Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) has a high potential to generate community supported REDD, perhaps more so than introducing the concept of REDD payments. Environmental education on climate change and its impact on environmental services provision can also motivate communities to protect forests. Given the present uncertainty on carbon payment mechanisms, WCS is testing this approach to determine if it is a more effective and appropriate entry point for discussing REDD than introducing the concept and promise of REDD payments.
• Knowledge of REDD should reach decision makers who are influential to the community, starting with councillors at the district level where REDD pilots are working.
Project: Piloting REDD in the Pugu and Kazimzumbwi Forests
Implementing organization: Wildlife Conservation Society of Tanzania (WCST)
WCST and partners have been working since early 2011 on this 4 year project in the Pugu and Kazimzumbwi forest reserves (7,272 ha total) to reduce carbon dioxide through curbing deforestation and degradation. Their approaches include improving forest management through complementing the central government’s management efforts and engaging members of adjacent communities.
WCST is working closely with a number of partners including: Tanzania Lawyers Environment Action Team (LEAT) for legal, policy and institutional framework studies; Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA) for carbon stock measurement; Environment Media Network Organization (EMNet) for knowledge management, advocacy, awareness raising and coordination; School of Business (UDSM) for designing and technical support to business plan; MNRT-FBD and local governments for policy guidance and other support.
The central government owns Pugu and Kazimzumbwi forest reserves, which are located very close to Dar es Salaam. These Forest Reserves offer important ecosystem services, including watershed services, to the surrounding urban area. However, these forests face very high deforestation and degradation rates; at present, forest cover in the reserves is less than 20%.
Curbing deforestation and forest degradation in these reserves is highly challenging for a number of reasons including their close proximity to a major urban centre, and high poverty rates in the communities adjacent to the reserves. There is also long standing land conflict between the central government (the statutory owner of the reserves) and members of the surrounding villages who claim customary rights to the reserve land.
Nonetheless, important progress is being made. Achievements to date include:
Establishing tree nurseries and disbursing seeds and seedlings to communities;
Reinforcing forest boundaries through, for example, sign postings, surveillance posts, and installation of permanent boundary structures;
Awareness raising among participating communities;
Strengthening Village Environmental Committees; and
Supporting income generation through employment (forest patrolling),training, and community and individual vegetable gardens and poultry farming.
Outcomes of these achievements so far include reduced rates of illegal forestry activities; increased community participation in sustainable forest management, including among community members that had been previously been engaged in illegal forest use; and increased forest regeneration.
Going forward the project will continue to build upon, among others, public support for conservation of the reserves, good cooperation with central and local governments, a multi-partner/ multi-stakeholder approach, and local people’s involvement in project planning and execution.
Project: Enhancing Tanzanian Capacity to Deliver Short and Long Term Data on Forest Carbon Stocks across the Country
Implementing organization: WWF Tanzania
Submitted by Prof. Shadrack Mwakalila (REDD project Coordinator)
To date, 40 carbon plots have been established and assessed in miombo woodlands in Iringa and Mbeya. Throughout December, the project will be extending carbon plot establishment in coastal and mangrove forests.
On 20 October 2011 the project hosted the 1st REDD Project Advisory Committee (PAC-1) in Morogoro. The main objective of the PAC-1meeting was to discuss the 3 year workplan of REDD project, to ensure that the project is well understood and that stakeholder comments can be received. The primary roles of the PAC are to:
provide a forum for ensuring the integration and coordination of project activities with other related activities being undertaken by Government and the NGO community in Tanzania;
monitor project implementation in terms of effectiveness and timeliness of inputs and in terms of the success of project activities;
provide advice on project activities, and ensure activities address the project objectives; and
provide advice on the best ways to link project findings to the policy process of REDD implementation in Tanzania.
In lieu of the usual newsletter section on REDD across the region, in this issue we share some REDD highlights from the UNFCCC CoP17 (Durban, South Africa 28 November – 10 December 2011).
Progress on REDD at CoP17
Submitted by Raja Jarrah(CARE Tanzania)
At the end of Cancun last year, negotiators for REDD were set some important bits of homework. One of them was to provide guidelines for the system to provide information on the safeguards – that is how the rights and livelihoods of women and men, and the protection of the environment, would be promoted under REDD.
REDD has the potential to save forests and benefit the local communities around them, but it also could do enormous harm in terms of forcing people off their traditional lands, destroying natural ecosystems for the sake of maximising carbon, and creating new wealth which is hogged by the few. That’s why we have these things called “safeguards”. What we could have got out of Durban was some minimum standards for reporting, a format, a review mechanism, and perhaps even a grievance procedure. What we got instead was a tame declaration that all safeguards should be reported on, as transparently as possible, according to a timetable that will be discussed next year. And there will be another meeting next year to discuss whether any more guidance than that is needed.
This weak outcome is disappointing but perhaps not surprising. After all, the committee that produced this recommendation (Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technical Advice - SBSTA) reports to another one largely comprised of the same people (Ad-hoc Working Group on Long-Term Cooperative Action - LCA). If the teachers and the pupils are the same, perhaps it’s not surprising that the homework is rather sloppy.
Meanwhile many countries, including Tanzania, are pressing ahead with their preparations for REDD – identifying forests, demarcating areas, calculating their deforestation rates, training people to measure carbon – but with little attention to setting up a system of safeguards. In many countries communities and local NGOs are not being involved or consulted as REDD is rolled out, much less been given the opportunity to decide whether they want their forests used for REDD. A recent report by a coalition known as the Accra Caucus on Forests and Climate Change, which brings together civil society organisations working on forests from across the world, has just published a set of case studies which show how countries getting ready for REDD are on the whole ignoring community interests.
This could be the thin end of the wedge. If civil society is not participating fully and effectively at this early stage, as the readiness for REDD transforms into implementation and the flows of money increase, women and men in forest dependent communities could become even more marginalised.
Many countries, including Tanzania, are behind on developing their REDD safeguards. Guidelines that set a high standard of reporting could have acted as a spur for faster progress. But there may be yet good news to come out of Durban if the provisions for financing REDD, which are still being negotiated, recognise the funding needs of implementing the safeguards (though of course Tanzania already has plenty of readiness funds from Norway). Perhaps what we could not achieve in safeguards here in Durban with a gentle stick (guidelines on reporting) we might be able to achieve with the promise of a carrot (dedicated financing).
This blog represents the personal views of the author and not the official position of TNRF or CARE International
As with most meetings of its kind, CoP17 included an overwhelming number and variety of so-called ‘side events’ – short events that are organized by governmental, non-governmental or private sector organizations and that feature presentations, discussions, mini-workshops, etc, on … well, just about everything related to climate change! Highlights from just a few REDD relevant workshops are below…
Towards REDD+ Readiness in Tanzania: Lessons Learnt, Opportunities and Challenges
Organized by the Government of Tanzania, 29 November
Event Q&A summary adapted from http://www.tnrf.org/blog/
At its side event, the Government of Tanzania (GoT) gave presentations coving the National REDD Strategy process, the role of PFM in REDD in Tanzania, and the status of MRV and the National Forest Monitoring Assessment. The GoT also fielded many questions by the audience following the presentations. Their open discussion on experiences, successes and challenges was appreciated by audience members. Some highlights from the Q & A (paraphrased):
Q: In the overview of the national strategy objectives and content, there was no specific mention of REDD to contribution to livelihoods – for example, what are REDD-compatible activities that will be incorporated?
A: There are ten key result areas in the strategy – one of them is to deal with the drivers of deforestation and degradation. As most Tanzanians rely on forests and natural resources in forests, by addressing D & D in this key result area, they are also indirectly addressing livelihoods.
Q: The presentation talked about PFM and REDD and mentioned that cost-benefit sharing for REDD+ for PFM is not yet clear. Can you highlight the reason for this status, especially considering that PFM is taking place on village land and under normal circumstances they should have clear property rights?
A: PFM was explained to have two approaches in Tanzania, CBFM and JFM. CBFM takes place on village land. All of the revenues generated through CBFM are shared among communities in village. JFM is where there are problems as the ownership of the forest belongs to the government, but the responsibilities for managing the forests are shared between the communities and the government. Additionally, there are many non-tangible benefits that people aren’t realizing (conservation, water, etc.).
Q: You mentioned a REDD Trust fund, can you clarify why you need a REDD Trust Fund? How will it be funded and what will be the use of the funds in the Trust fund?
A: Regarding the REDD Trust fund, one of the in-depth studies was to understand the modality of REDD finance in TZ. The reports will dictate or recommend which methods should be instituted. The consultants did their reviews and the report will provide information on a better way for financial management in TZ.
Q: Early pilot projects are currently implementing REDD. How are they being incorporated into the national system? How will they be collecting information, carbon and social and biodiversity information?
A: This question was not answered by the panel
Q: Can you talk about working with stakeholders, NGOs and civil society – how do you work with civil society – what is their role in the REDD program?
A: This question was not answered by the panel
Q: Tanzania, together with a few other countries, are involved in the REDD+ Social and Environmental Standards (SES). So far, there have been lots of stories from those other countries, but not much from Tanzania. What is the government thinking about in terms of instituting safeguards in TZ?
A: We understand that there are different safeguards globally…but for us, in Tanzania, we would like to use this opportunity of safeguards, together with our national safeguards, to analyze all of the different options and come up with comprehensive national safeguards that don’t have gaps. Some safeguards are leaning towards communities and environment…our aim is to come up with national safeguards, which will take care of other existing safeguards.
REDD Realities: What are we learning from the past and readiness process?
Organized by TNRF and IIED, 30 November
Summary adapted from http://www.tnrf.org/blog/
Isilda Nhantumbo, Senior Researcher at IIED, presented on “How can REDD+ be cost effective and pro-poor?” She shared six key messages that emerged from the South-South learning event that took place on November 27th (http://www.iied.org/blogs/louder-time-turn-redd-its-head)
Erneus Kaijage, Program Manager with Clinton Climate Initiatives, spoke about safeguards. He gave an international context and then focused in on safeguard development in Tanzania, which he said must be “comprehensive, transparent, inclusive and flexible”
Charles Meshack, Director of the Tanzania Forest Conservation Group, provided a look at PFM experiences in Tanzania. Although research has shown that PFM forests tend to be “better off” than non-PFM forests, there are still many challenges, and REDD should learn from those challenges and provide opportunities for improvement.
Abdul-Razak Saeed, climate change governance program officer with Civic Response in Ghana, launched a new publication, REDD+ Readiness: Case Studies from the Accra Caucus. This was the second report, and has case studies from Ghana, Papua New Guinea, Central African Republic, Nepal and Republic of Congo. Overall, the case studies reinforce that there is a strong need to improve forest governance and legal reform, land tenure reform, and improve effective benefit sharing mechanisms and participation.
Although there wasn’t much time for Q & A, it was interesting that the issue of private sector involvement and engagement, including engagement in development of safeguards, came up in two of the questions. Clearly, the issue of private sector involvement in REDD is in need of attention. And robust social and environmental safeguards as well as learning from past experiences will help ensure engagement is fair and equitable.
Enforcement and Anti-corruption Measures Essential to REDD Success
Organized by the Global Witness Limited, 29 November 2011
Text adapted from IISD Side Event Summary: http://www.iisd.ca/climate/cop17/enbots/29nove.html
Andrea Johnson, EIA, highlighted law enforcement and anti-corruption institutional activities are essential to successful and equitable efforts to reduce deforestation and degradation. She lamented that these issues have not been adequately included within REDD+ forest governance. She said building the institutions for more transparent and accountable law enforcement will have long-term benefits for forests and societies regardless of REDD outcomes.
Davyth Stewart, Global Witness, emphasized the need for anti-corruption measures since an increase in financial inputs in developing countries could lead to funds´ misappropriation. He recommended, inter alia: a mandatory auditing process, a publicly available registry of finance and activities; and the adaptation of the International Aid Transparency Initiative and International Monetary Fund Guide on Resource Revenue Transparency to include REDD.
Rosalind Reeve, Philippines´ Ateneo School of Government, highlighted: stakeholder cooperation, especially among law enforcement agencies; development of memoranda of understanding among national agencies; regional cooperation that enables fast communication, data sharing, and cross-border operations; and international cooperation.
Peg Putt, Global Witness, speaking on behalf of Indonesia´s communities of the Tripa Peat Swamps, stressed the main causes of substantial degeneration: long-ongoing conflict; subsequent tsunami and major loss of forest; and illegal fires which have been used to clear land. She posited that crimes committed by officials at government level need to be addressed in any crime prevention action.
Roberto Espinoza, Indigenous Association for the Development of the Peruvian Amazon (AIDESEP), stressed the need for structural change within REDD and called for an end to the financial speculation by “carbon cowboys”. He pointed as some of REDD+ problems: the separation of the rights to trees, soil and land; leakage and the establishment of infrastructures such as dams and roads; and the inability to address the rights of indigenous peoples.
Addressing REDD+ Safeguards: Experiences using REDD+ SES and other mechanisms
Organized by the Ministry of Environment, Ecuador and Conservation International (CI), 30 November
Text adapted from IISD Side Events Summary: http://www.iisd.ca/climate/cop17/enbots/30nove.html
Joanna Durbin, The Climate, Community & Biodiversity Alliance (CCBA), said she was pleased to be learning from experience as she reflected on the evident benefits presented from the engaged country initiatives.
Samuel Nnah Ndobe, Center for Environment and Development (CED), Cameroon, provided an overview of the REDD+ SES framework as a country-led multi-stakeholder process.
Carola Borja, Ecuador, related experiences working with stakeholders and implementing REDD+ SES to build a robust information system that will: collect information on safeguards; provide feedback; build capacity; and strengthen credibility. She shared planned activities to continue scaling up and institutionalize the programme.
Mónica de los Rios, Institute of Climate Change and Environmental Services Regulation, Brazil, shared how the state of Acre is integrating REDD+ under and an existing law, aligning targets to optimize benefits.
Free de Koning, CI, introduced initiatives on producing benefits from the REDD+ Social & Environmental Standards (SES).
Dil Raj Khanal, Federation of Forest Users Nepal (FECOFUN), detailed how Nepal is using REDD+ SES as a component of a Readiness Preparation Proposal. He shared the benefit of consensus on safeguards across the ethnically diverse country, despite challenges in coordination between agencies.
Clea Paz-Rivera, UN-REDD Programme Secretariat, explained the objective of a series of tools for REDD+ that guide implementation; ensure negative impacts are addressed and managed; and reflect a human-right-based approach. She reviewed early lessons, benefits, and cross-cutting changes of draft criteria, highlighting the importance of including stakeholders from the design phase of any tool related to safeguards.
How is REDD+ Unfolding on the Ground? An Exploration of the Social, Political, and Biophysical Issues
Organized by Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), 30 November
Text adapted from IISD Side Event Summaries: http://www.iisd.ca/climate/cop17/enbots/30nove.html
Frances Seymour, Director-General of CIFOR, said the genesis of the research findings is the Global Comparative Study on REDD+ (GCS), which was developed in partnership with organizations and researchers from all around the world. She noted a mutual sense of recalibrating expectations about REDD and that financial resources are not flowing as quickly as expected.
Erin Sills, North Carolina State University, noted CIFOR´s on-line database of forest carbon projects in non-Annex I countries, and showed their geographical distribution, basic statistics and other elements. She noted that GCS projects are testing a range of strategies to reduce forest carbon emissions and/or increase removals. She concluded that “polycentric governance” is key to integrating local and national efforts to clarify land tenure, and that project proponents will avoid going to places where there are tenure problems.
Charles Meshack, Executive Director of TFCG overviewed their REDD project, underscoring its stages: site selection; free prior and informed consent with participating communities; participatory identification and implementation of strategies to reduce deforestation; generation of emission reductions and verification; and sending revenues back to the communities, initially using project funds. He pointed out challenges for the projects, such as: restriction of access to land and forest products; elite capture of REDD funds; land “grabbing”; conflict within communities over distribution of REDD funds; and increased human-wildlife conflict.
Maria Brockhaus, CIFOR (Indonesia), explained how to develop national policies that enable REDD+ projects to be implemented at local level. She underscored challenges, including: coordinating among sectors and administrative levels; defining tenure, financing systems, benefit sharing and participation; and monitoring, reporting and verifying systems (MRV).
Manuel Estrada, Consultant, explored the social, political and biophysical issues regarding MRV systems for REDD+ at the national level. Under-scoring the series of requirements and indicators for assessing REDD+ in a variety of countries, he said there are three main categories: completeness of GHG inventory; forest area change monitoring capacity; and forest inventory capacity.
Adapted from http://www.tnrf.org/blog/
One day prior to the start of COP 17, IIED brought together knowledgeable representatives on REDD+ from Africa, Asia and Latin America to talk about REDD. The event, “REDD+, poverty reduction and sustainable development: Are there cost-effective pro-poor options? South- South REDD+ Learning,” covered topics from payment for ecosystem services and payment models to social and environmental safeguards, tenure issues and gender. The aim of the event was “to share knowledge and experience of sustainable forest management and have a constructive dialogue on lessons learnt for implementing REDD+ so that it is both cost-effective and pro-poor.”
While there were many issues of interest for Tanzania, the one that stood out based on discussion from participants and presenters was tenure. Dr. William Sunderlin from CIFOR laid the foundation for discussions on tenure and REDD with his presentation, Tenure: what can REDD+ learn from land and forest tenure challenges that participatory forestry had/s to deal with? He pointed out four main reasons why clear and secure tenure is important when dealing with REDD:1) ensure the rights holder is receiving stream of benefits; 2) rewards from REDD are conditional and someone must be held accountable; 3) help prevent a potential ‘resource rush’; and 4) assure existing rights are not violated.
These tenure related issues are highly relevant for REDD in Tanzania, as reflected in pilot project experience, and in recommendations from the pilot projects to the Task Force for the national Strategy.
See www.tnrf.org/blog for a more complete discussion on this learning event and on tenure and REDD in Tanzania.
Stakeholders in Tanzania are working hard towards REDD readiness and learning lessons on its practical benefits and risks through pilot projects. Tanzania presents unique opportunities and challenges to the implementation of effective and equitable REDD. Nonetheless, REDD is being developed and implemented in a global system, and it is important to acknowledge the global debate on REDD.
As one part of this debate, fundamental questions and concerns about REDD continue to be raised by indigenous peoples and local community organizations. For example, just before the opening of CoP17, Members of the Indigenous Peoples’ Biocultural Climate change Assessment (IPCCA) Initiative from Ecuador, Panama, India, Nicaragua, Peru and Samoa released a Declaration identifying “inherent risks and negative impacts of REDD+”. This Declaration came out of a workshop they held to share findings and analyse how REDD is affecting their territories. More information about the event, and the full text of the Declaration can be found here:http://ipcca.info/blog/2011/11/29/indigenous-leaders-alert-the-unfccc-and-the-world-to-the-imminent-threat-that-redd-poses-to-their-territories-and-livelihoods/. In another example, on 4 December, TIMBERWATCH and partners organized ‘Fake Forest Day’ to “provide a space to create awareness of, and to denounce false solutions” to climate change. Discussions focused on REDD+, ‘agrofuels’, afforestation and reforestation. To read more about this event and see the full program, see http://www.timberwatch.org/.
UN FCCC hosted REDD Information Sharing Web Platform
On this UN FCCC information sharing platform, Parties, relevant organizations and stakeholders are encouraged to submit information relating to REDD. Resources on the website include background information, technical assistance, demonstration activities, country specific information, methodologies and tools, and information on REDD meetings and events.
New Publication: "UN-REDD Lessons Learned: Asia-Pacific"
(Adapted from UN-REDD Newsletter 24 and UN-REDD 2011:15-16)
Drawing from the early experiences of supporting partner countries in their REDD+ readiness and implementation efforts over the past three years, the UN-REDD Programme has released a substantive, 12-page publication focusing on lessons learned among UN-REDD Programme partner countries in the Asia-Pacific region. The publication identifies tangible challenges and best practices that have emerged among its 12 partner countries in the region, including examples and case studies related to information, monitoring and MRV, benefit distribution systems, safeguards and the formulation of national REDD+ strategies. In 2012, the Programme will launch two more publications in this series, focusing on lessons learned in Africa and Latin America and the Caribbean.
Recommendations and key findings include:
1. Awareness cannot be raised and capacities cannot be strengthened overnight.
2. Effective stakeholder engagement can produce unexpected positive results.
3. Misperceptions arise easily and are frequently heard.
4. Most UN-REDD Programme partner countries are currently located in the tropics.
5. Many requirements for sustainable forest management are the same for REDD+.
Citation: UN-REDD. November 2011. UN-REDD Lessons Learned: Asia-Pacific. FAO, UNDP, and UNEP (UN-REDD Programme).
The full document can be freely downloaded here: http://www.un-redd.org/
“Guidelines for REDD+ Reference Levels: Principles and Recommendations”
(Source: Meridian Institute 2011:ii)
This report proposes guidelines for developing REDD+ reference levels (RLs) under the …UNFCCC. It identifies principles that should be adhered to, the steps that must be taken, the data that will be required, and shows how the data can be analyzed to produce scientifically credible estimates of historic GHG emissions and removals from forests, which can then be used to project RLs.
Citation: Meridian Institute. 2011. “Guidelines for REDD+ Reference Levels: Principles and Recommendations” Prepared for the Government of Norway, by Arild Angelsen, Doug Boucher, Sandra Brown, Valérie Merckx, Charlotte Streck, and Daniel Zarin.
Available for free download at www.REDD-OAR.org.
“Lessons Learned from the Field:
REDD+ and the rights of indigenous peoples and forest dependent communities”
Citation: FPP. November 2011. Lessons from the field: REDD+ and the rights of indigenous peoples and forest dependent communities.Forest Peoples Programme. United Kingdom.
Download the report at: www.forestpeoples.org/sites/fpp/files/publication/2011/11/lessons-field-...
For more on REDD+ and rights, see FPP’s Rights, Forests and Climate Briefing Series:www.forestpeoples.org/tags/rights-forests-and-climate-briefing-series-0
New Briefings Series from the Rights and Resources Institute:
“Rights to Resources in Crises: Reviewing the Fate of Customary Tenure in Africa”
In a series of 5 new briefs Liz Alden Wily analyzes the roots of African land tenure systems, recent policy trends and the phenomenon of large scale land acquisitions. The series Rights to Resources in Crisis: Reviewing the Fate of Customary Tenure in Africa assesses the status of customary land rights and the forces that will affect them as Africa develops. The briefs are on:
New Report from the Munden Project:
“A Response to CMIA: Towards a Broader Approach to Achieving REDD”
Adapted from Munden Project 2011
In March 2011 the Munden Project published a report on forest carbon markets, concluding that “the range of potential outcomes is highly skewed towards problematic effects that would see REDD fall well short of its objectives” and therefore that forest carbon trading is “unworkable as currently constructed.”[i] Representing investors in climate markets, Climate Markets and Investors Association(CMIA) wrote a direct response to the Munden report,[ii] claiming that the report ignores carbon markets generally, which leads to three fundamental analytical errors. The Munden Project disagrees with CMIA’s analysis. Munden has released a new document (6 December 2011) with the purpose of rebutting CMIA’s claims. Read the Munden Project’s rebuttal here: http://www.rightsandresources.org/documents/files/doc_2765.pdf
Read Raja Jarrah’s overview of the first Munden Report in TZ-REDD Newsletter 4: http://www.tnrf.org/reddnewsletter4#highlights
Citation: Munden Project, 6 December 2011. A Response to CMIA: Towards a Broader Approach to Achieving REDD. Prepared as a rebuttal to CMIA’s response to our Forest Carbon Market report. Munden Project LLC
[i]To read the full report see: <http://www.mundenproject.com/forestcarbonreport2.pdf>
[ii]To read CMIA’s report visit the following link: